Sponsored By Viasat
04 Dec 18. Viasat’s Military-Grade Airborne Modem Achieves Authorization to Operate Across Government Satellite Communications Networks. Viasat Inc. (NASDAQ: VSAT), a global communications company, today announced its Mobile Broadband Router (MBR)-4020 airborne modem has successfully completed the Army Forces Strategic Command (ARSTRAT) certification process. By completing the certification, the Viasat MBR-4020 modem is now authorized to operate on the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) network, which will significantly reduce overall satellite communications (SATCOM) costs for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) customers and very important person special airlift mission (VIPSAM) aircraft.
The Viasat MBR-4020 is a dual-band, multi-mode software-defined modem, capable of industry-leading network interoperability and operational flexibility today. It is one device that can serve the high-speed, secure, resilient and ubiquitous airborne mission needs of military customers.
“Obtaining ARSTRAT certification for the MBR-4020 modem demonstrates our ability to rapidly deliver solutions that can seamlessly integrate into a hybrid adaptive network architecture to meet rapidly evolving in-flight mission and communications needs,” said Ken Peterman, president, Government Systems, Viasat. “With Viasat’s MBR-4020, VIPSAM and ISR customers have a communications infrastructure that can roam among networks and orbital regimes in order to deliver advanced connectivity services for evolving operations and en-route mission planning requirements.”
The Viasat MBR-4020 is designed to fit seamlessly into Viasat’s Hybrid Adaptive Network SATCOM architecture concept, which will conceptually allow users to seamlessly operate across commercial and government purpose-built SATCOMnetworks, such as WGS, creating an end-to-end network that provides mitigation against congestion situations, intentional and unintentional interference sources and cyber threats through implementation of layered resiliency in highly contested environments.
The Viasat MBR-4020 modem is available for purchase and use across all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense.
05 Dec 18. Thales Alenia Space Will Support Korean Aerospace Industry for the Development of a Constellation of Earth Observation Radar Satellites. Thales Alenia Space, a joint venture between Thales (67%) and Leonardo (33%), today announced that it has signed two contracts with Korea, one with Aerospace Industries, LTD. (KAI) and one with Hanwha Systems Corporation (HSC), to develop a constellation of high-resolution observation radar satellites for the Agency for Defence Development (ADD), known as Korea “425 Project”, to serve South Korea. Korean Aerospace Industries leads a consortium including South Korea’s Hanwha System and Thales Alenia Space. All three companies have been involved in developing satellites and related technologies for a number of years. Technical cooperation and several know-hows required for the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Satellites development will be transferred to Korean companies, up to a maximum involvement in the production of the last satellite of the Constellation, providing them with an outstanding growth in the field of design and development of Earth Observation Systems. For the four satellites, Thales Alenia Space will provide the SAR Payloads and the platform elements (especially for Control Momentum Gyro and sensors) derived from the HE-R1000 product (High Efficiency Radar), part of the Thales Alenia Space Observation product family that includes both radar and optical satellites. This technology will enable short revisit times for each of the satellites, and support all-weather operation, with a very high global revisit frequency. The constellation will be used by the Korean authorities for surveillance, intelligence and control of specific areas of interest thanks to the acquisition of high-resolution images.
Agility is one of the primary assets for advanced missions entrusted to this new generation of high-resolution surveillance satellites. Based on an active feed array and reflector antenna innovative solution, the satellites ensure superior quality images, while unique agility capability is provided thanks to the adaptation of a control momentum gyro: a spinning rotor and one motorized gimbal tilt the rotor’s angular momentum. As the rotor tilts, the changing angular momentum causes a gyroscopic torque that rotates the spacecraft. Moving around the three axes, these “dancing satellites”, will be fitted with a special antenna developed within the scope of the Thales Alenia Space Reseach & Development program. With a diameter of 5 meters, the new-generation antenna will open its 24 petals once in space.
“Thales Alenia Space is honored to have earned the confidence of the Korean Ministry of Defence and other authorities involved in this project, who recognized our proven track record in delivering state-of-the-art observation satellites,” said Donato Amoroso, Senior Vice-President, Observation, Exploration and Navigation at Thales Alenia Space. “The contract signed today is a superb opportunity for cooperation between Italy and Korea. It confirms the new global trend in the space business and the ‘new space’ transformation strategy being implemented by Thales Alenia Space, with the ultimate aim of becoming a major manufacturer of small satellite constellations featuring short revisit times.
“This business win confirms Thales Alenia Space’s long-standing expertise and unique global position in the design, development and construction of radar Earth observation satellites, as well as the development of satellite constellations. It is also based on the heritage of the excellent performance of the COSMO-SkyMed program, the world’s most advanced spaceborne radar system.”
Thales Alenia Space’s participation in the 425 Project is the latest milestone in its long-standing collaboration with South Korea on a number of space programs, including KOMPSAT-5, the Koreasat telecommunications satellite family, GEO-KOMPSAT-2, KASS, etc.
COSMO-SkyMed, funded by the Italian space agency ASI, the Italian Ministry of Defence and the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Scientific Research, is the first “dual use” Earth observation system, spanning both civil and military applications. Its four identical satellites “watch” our planet from space day and night under all atmospheric conditions, using high resolution X-band radars. Thales Alenia Space is the program prime contractor, responsible for the entire system, including the ground and space segments, and leading a consortium of companies from throughout the space industry. Telespazio developed the ground segment and hosts the Constellation Control Center at the Fucino Space Center. e-GEOS (ASI/Telespazio) is the world-wide exclusive distributor of COSMO-SkyMed data. Thales Alenia Space is currently involved in the development of the COSMO Second Generation (CSG) constellation, which represents a major generational leap in terms of technology, performance and operational life. It will provide new application possibilities, in particular for risk management and damage assessment of natural and man-made disasters. CSG Earth observation spacecraft feature state-of-the-art technologies and engineering solutions, further bolstering Italian leadership in this sector. This second-generation system, including its ground segment, will set a new performance standard for space-based radar observation systems in terms of precision, image quality and the flexibility of user services. Satellites and instruments designed and developed by Thales Alenia Space, including Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) weather satellites and the COSMO-SkyMed radar constellation, have already made a pivotal contribution to damage assessment following natural disasters, such as earthquakes, landslides and flooding, the monitoring of critical infrastructures, tracking the movement of glaciers, and monitoring illegal activities such as oil spills and the trafficking of goods or people.
Thales Alenia Space delivers cost-effective solutions for telecommunications, navigation, Earth observation, environmental management, exploration, science and orbital infrastructures. A joint venture between Thales (67%) and Leonardo (33%), Thales Alenia Space also teams up with Telespazio to form the parent companies’ Space Alliance, which offers a complete range of services. Thales Alenia Space posted consolidated revenues of 2.6bn euros in 2017 and has 7,980 employees in nine countries. (Source: defense-aerospace.com/Thales Alenia Space)
06 Dec 18. CSIRO secures CubeSat to unveil environmental extremes. Australia’s national science agency, CSIRO has announced that it would be extending its Earth observation capabilities by acquiring Australia’s first CubeSat designed to detect infrared light to monitor environmental changes. To be known as CSIROSat-1, the new satellite will allow researchers from CSIRO and other institutions to ‘see’ features that can’t otherwise be observed using satellite imagery in the visible spectrum.
Although the satellite is a pilot and relatively small, the data collected will be valuable for detecting land cover changes such as flooding events or deforestation, detecting bush fires through smoke, and studying cloud formation and the development of tropical cyclones, as well as many other applications. Traditionally, satellites are about the size of a refrigerator, have long production and assembly schedules, and are expensive to develop and launch.
CubeSats are miniaturised cube-shaped satellites units, with a single unit being 10x10x10 centimetres. CubeSats are lower cost, faster to build and cheaper to launch than larger satellites. With these low barriers to entry, they are a cost-effective option for trialling new technology and space research in low-Earth orbit.
CSIRO chief executive and trustee of the Science and Industry Endowment Fund Dr Larry Marshall said CSIROSat-1 and the data infrastructure supporting it would add another level of capability to Australian science.
“Innovation happens at the intersection of people and disciplines, CSIRO’s strategy is to drive a deeper sharing of our world-class infrastructure with the entire system,” Dr Marshall said.
In addition to enabling scientific research, CSIROSat-1 is a demonstration project, aimed at furthering development of the technology to support growth of Australia’s advanced manufacturing, imaging and data processing capabilities for small satellite systems.
“Technology projects such as CSIROSat-1 will help support the Australian Space Agency’s goal of tripling the size of the domestic space sector to $10-12 bn by 2030, bringing economic returns and improving the lives of Australians,” Dr Marshall said.
Director of CSIRO’s Centre for Earth Observation Dr Alex Held said South Australia-based start-up Inovor Technologies would design, assemble and build CSIROSat-1.
“CSIRO is committed to collaborating and fostering relationships across the space sector, and with start-ups in particular. For the CSIROSat-1 project we’re excited to be working together with our build partner, Inovor Technologies,” Dr Held said.
Inovor Technologies provides space technologies and satellite mission solutions and are ideally placed to build the satellite. As the only Australian company manufacturing satellites using a fully integrated Australian supply, they provided the added benefit of up-skilling the local advanced manufacturing sector.
CEO of Inovor Technologies Dr Matt Tetlow said CSIROSat-1 would be a ‘nanosatellite’ made up of three cubes, stacked one on top of the other, about the same size as a loaf of bread.
“CSIROSat-1 will carry a sensor with infrared imaging capability, the first time an Australian satellite has operated in this spectrum,” Dr Tetlow explained.
Other collaborators and research partners in the project include the University of New South Wales Canberra, the Australian National University, and Defence Science and Technology Group. Data derived from CSIROSat-1 will complement that collected by NovaSAR-1, a new radar satellite in which CSIRO has a 10 per cent tasking and data acquisition share.
Dr Tetlow added, “In addition to collecting information about Earth, it will be a platform for developing advanced on-board data processing capabilities.”
Inovor Technologies specialises in developing service and satellite mission solutions. Inovor technologies also offers specialist research and development services for Defence and commercial customers. The use of Earth observation data for services such as remote asset management and environmental monitoring and management, was one of the growth opportunities outlined for Australia in the recently published report Space: A Roadmap for unlocking future growth opportunities for Australia. Over the past 75 years, CSIRO has built strong capabilities in Earth observation, radio astronomy, space tracking and managing complex facilities. CSIRO supports supply chains through advanced manufacturing, managing big data and helping small and medium enterprises. CSIRO also has an established network of national and international partnerships throughout the space sector. (Source: Space Connect)
05 Dec 18. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) awarded GeoNorth Information Systems (GNIS) a five-year, $15m contract for persistent surveillance services of the Arctic region. Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) will provide a scalable geospatial processing platform to enable the surveillance project.
GNIS will leverage Lockheed Martin’s Rosetta technology, which includes a versatile and highly automated set of commercial and civil image processing tools that scale and adapt to deliver precision geospatial intelligence products to the NGA. GNIS, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Tatitlek Corporation, an Alaska Native Village Corporation, will work with Lockheed Martin and the University of Alaska Fairbanks’ (UAF) Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), under the banner of the Arctic GeoData Cooperative. GNIS and the partners will build, improve, monitor and maintain terrain elevation models of the Arctic region.
“The Arctic region has significant global implications for environmental, economic and security factors,” said Gil Metzger, director of Applied Research at Lockheed Martin. “It is critical that we document and monitor this demanding environment with the best technologies available. Lockheed Martin is proud to be part of this innovative Cooperative that establishes both an operational domain awareness capability and a foundation for advanced research.”
The cooperative team will leverage each member’s unique expertise and capabilities to provide a one-of-a-kind solution to partners like the NGA.
“The Arctic domain poses many challenges,” said Jon Heinsius, general manager of GNIS. “Not only is it an area much larger than the whole United States and Canada combined, but its remoteness, intense weather conditions and unique characteristics are not found anywhere else in the world. The Cooperative’s combined academic and commercial approach provides the NGA with tremendous flexibility to meet their current and future needs.”
As the prime contractor, GNIS will perform overall project management, conduct day-to-day operations and provide access to commercial remote-sensing platforms through its existing direct receiving station located at ASF. UAF brings broad Arctic-related research and development, problem solving and the ability to refine existing scientific algorithms and methods to support specific project requirements. Lockheed Martin’s Rosetta tool-set will transform the large volumes of sensed data into correlated geospatial intelligence products.
04 Dec 18. London turns to America after EU excludes Britain from Galileo satellite program. The United Kingdom is open to working with U.S. industry to build a new global navigation satellite system, following London being frozen out of the Galileo spacecraft program by the European Union, the British defense secretary said this weekend.
“We are very much open to” working with the U.S. on a new system, Gavin Williamson told reporters at the Dec. 2 Reagan National Defense Forum in California. “We will be very happy to work with allies, like-minded friends in terms of development, and it will be something that I think will bring quite considerable benefits.”
“If you look at this, it isn’t something that necessarily will compete with the Global Positioning System,” Williamson added. “And, actually, no single country should wish to be completely reliant on one system, and the EU, through Galileo, never let the U.S. effectively be able to have the access to the system that it would need.”
The remarks by Williamson came 48 hours after Britain hardened its negotiating position in the row with the European Union over being excluded from Galileo’s military and security data post Brexit, with Prime Minister Theresa May announcing in a statement the country would be pulling out of the project.
It is in Britain’s national interest to develop it’s own alternative system, May said, stating: “Given the [European] Commission’s decision to bar the UK from being fully involved in developing all aspects of Galileo it is only right that we find alternatives.”
The £9 bn (U.S. $11 bn) Galileo system will comprise 30 satellites, made up of 24 operating systems with six orbiting spares. The U.K. has invested approximately £1.2 bn in the Galileo program to date, and British industry has provided key technologies, including much of the encrypted computed-based Public Regulated Service system, which is at the heart of payload elements providing data to military and security users for missile targeting and other requirements.
“Galileo has been built on our money, our technology, our research. So the idea that I’m going to continue, or the British government is going to continue, to pump money into a project where we do not have military access or commercial access, frankly, is both naive and optimistic on behalf of the European Union,” Williamson said.
“The United Kingdom — we have the technology, the ideas, the people. And frankly we will do our own with other allies, and I believe it will be more successful and it will be more formidable than anything that Europe can produce.”
In August the British government set aside £92 m to look at options to replace Galileo with a newer, more capable system, and Britain says it’s confident it has the technical know-how to build a new satellite navigation network.
Airbus CEO Tom Enders weighed into the row on Dec. 3, tweeting that the U.K.’s departure from Galileo would be a “serious blow to the EU’s common security and defence ambitions.”
“Don’t those talking about a European army know that the UK is one of only two serious military powers in Europe?” he said on Twitter.
Last week it emerged Airbus had relocated 80 jobs from Britain to the continent to enable work on the project to be completed.
As to partnering in the U.S., Williamson said the focus will be more working with industry stateside than coordinating directly with the Pentagon.
“It will very much be working with U.S. defense companies, but also much more broadly in terms of allies. But it’s a dialogue that needs to develop,” the defense secretary said. “If that is something that the Department of Defense looks at with interest in the future, it would be good to have that discussion [and get the] ducks in a row in order to be able to take forward a proper proposition.”
Australia is another country that has been touted as a possible partner in any future system. (Source: glstrade.com/Defense News)
03 Dec 18. Australia’s first commercial orbital launch facility to be built in South Australia. NewSpace company Southern Launch will begin developing the infrastructure to deploy nanosatellites from the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia Southern Launch CEO Lloyd Damp said today that after an 18-month search for the perfect spot the company found a site at Whalers Way on the Eyre Peninsula for its launch pad.
“We looked at sites from Western Australia to Victoria that were suitable for a southern launch and provided the right safety for people and the environment and South Australia met all the criteria,” said Damp.
“Besides offering the ability to launch rockets into a polar or sun synchronous orbit, we also needed to have access to major infrastructure like ports and airports.”
Called the Whalers Way Orbital Launch Complex, the 1190-hectare site sits at the bottom of Eyre Peninsula, about 35 minutes’ drive from the regional centre of Port Lincoln. The complex is 300km northwest of Adelaide and 500km south of Woomera, the historic rocket launch site that is restricted to military use.
Damp said the startup was in discussions with domestic and international rocket manufacturers to begin designing and developing the necessary infrastructure at its site for launch vehicles and would begin construction early in 2019 with the aim of being operable by the end of the year.
“Both here and overseas I realised a lot of new companies were developing small rockets, but there weren’t many places to launch these rockets from and Australia has this really unique geography,” Damp said.
Southern Launch will target rockets with payloads between 50kg and 400kg, like Rocket Lab’s Electron, that carry microsatellites into polar or sun synchronous orbits to service Internet of Things applications such as monitoring agricultural land.
“There has been a huge shift in the space ecosystem from the old-space equatorial orbits for large telecoms and TV satellites to the NewSpace polar orbits for IoT,” Damp said.
“Satellites in a north-south orbit mean you need a smaller number of cheap satellites to observe the entire globe.”
Southern Launch is working with the South Australian government, the Australian Space Agency and other regulators to work through the regulations and assessments needed to launch from the site.
Rockets launched at the site will fly 500km south over the Great Australian Bight before reaching orbit.
Sitael Australia’s general manager Mark Ramsey said the Italian space company, which set up an office in Adelaide this year, would use the complex for its satellites.
“This will allow us to offer satellite customers the ability to launch out of Australia to these new orbits,” Ramsey said.
The site announcement came at the same time that South Australian startup Fleet Space Technologies launched its fourth nanonsatellite from different international sites.
The Adelaide-based IoT company’s second Centauri nanosatellite was successfully launched aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 SSO-A mission from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California this morning.
Fleet sent Centauri I aboard Indian Space Research Organisation’s PSLV-C43 mission on 29 November and launched experimental satellites Proxima I & II aboard Rocket Lab’s It’s Business Time manifest on 11 November.
Fleet Space co-founder and CEO Flavia Tata Nardini said both Proxima satellites and Centauri I were successfully completing their duties and the second Centauri satellite was expected to start transmitting data in the next few weeks.
“We’re thrilled to showcase Fleet Space Technologies’ capabilities to the world by launching our very own constellation of nanosatellites within a matter of weeks. It is incredible to work with industry heavyweights such as SpaceX, ISRO and Rocket Lab to help make our vision of building the global digital nervous system a reality,” Nardini said.
“There’s no time to rest, we’re on and upwards to provide our customers with global connectivity to solve the world’s future challenges from space.”
The news comes a day before Australia’s space industry meets at the 6th South Australia Space Forum in Adelaide to discuss the future of the industry and get an update from the newly-established Australian Space Agency. (Source: The Lead)
29 Nov 18. Blue Canyon Technologies’ Highly Sought After $1.54m Contract from DARPA for Blackjack Program. Blue Canyon Technologies competed for, and won, a highly sought-after $1.54m contract from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for Phase 1 Architecture and Design of a spacecraft of DARPA’s Blackjack Program. Blue Canyon Technologies (BCT) will design an ESPA-class micro-satellite using their state-of-the-art commoditized FleXbus spacecraft architecture. The spacecraft will feature BCT’s flight-proven integrated avionics and attitude control. BCT’s focus will be on the development of the systems requirements and preliminary designs, culminating in the Preliminary Design Review (PDR).
With funding being provided by DARPA and the U.S. Air Force, the basic formula of the Blackjack program is to develop and demonstrate the critical technical elements for building a global high-speed network platform in low Earth orbit (LEO) that enables highly networked, resilient and persistent Department of Defense (DoD) payloads.
Subsequent phases will cover detailed design up through a CDR, construction of two flight spacecraft, launch and demonstration of the first two spacecraft for six months, and finally build and launch 18 additional spacecraft to complete a 20-spacecraft constellation demonstration by 2021.
A company spokesperson stated they are excited to be off and running on this program as they all recognize the importance of this project. The core elements of this effort have been in the works at BCT for years and they are thrilled to be able to see them realized on Blackjack. They are expecting to see numerous constellations of their high-performance spacecraft bus with interconnections between the satellites and the ground, performing various functions for multiple users. The Blackjack program will be leading the way.
In addition to designing spacecraft for the Blackjack program, BCT is now supporting numerous successful missions with a cumulative total of four spacecraft, 11 attitude control systems, 25 star trackers and 69 reaction wheels on-orbit. In conjunction with this recent on-orbit success, BCT has expanded their satellite manufacturing facilities in Boulder, Colorado to over 42,000 square feet.
The new facility was designed to accommodate the demand for their high-performance, high-reliability spacecraft, subsystems, and components. BCT’s new state-of-the-art facility supports high-volume spacecraft production, including constellations, by leveraging new cleanrooms, thermal vacuums, vibration, integration, and test capabilities.
BCT has orders for nearly 60 spacecraft, ranging from 3U CubeSats to 200kg ESPA-class, for missions in LEO to GEO, for commercial, academic, and government customers. BCT has also recently obtained building permits for an additional 40,000 square feet, which will make their facility one of the largest for small satellite production in the world. (Source: Satnews)
03 Dec 18. Is near-instant satellite imagery almost here Intelligence analysts and soldiers on the battlefield could have access to near real-time imagery from commercial satellites as soon as 2021 thanks to new industry partnerships. Amazon Web Services unveiled Nov. 28 a new product named AWS Ground Station, which includes parabolic antennas at 12 locations across the globe. Those ground stations can download imagery data as satellites pass overhead and then push that information to the cloud at faster speeds than traditional ground stations. Meanwhile, leaders from satellite imagery company DigitalGlobe said in tests they were able to move imagery data from the ground station to the cloud in less than a minute. Using today’s technology, that task takes about an hour. Combined, the speed of the new ground stations and the expected launch of DigitalGlobe’s constellation of next-generation imagery satellites in 2021 would offer a new level of immediacy to customers.
“When firefighters are attacking a wildfire, they need the most up-to-date information to save lives and homes,” Jeff Carr, director of mission operations engineering support at DigitalGlobe, wrote in a Nov. 27 blog post. “When first responders are tracking down refugees fleeing danger in flimsy rubber boats, they need real-time information about where those rubber boats are located before they sink. The uses for current and accurate space-based data is growing — and the end-users need it quickly.”
DigitalGlobe provides imagery to the National Reconnaissance Office under the Enhanced View contract and to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency with the Global EGD contract. Several companies that already provide imagery and data to the Department of Defense and intelligence community — including BlackSky, Spire and HawkEye 360 — are also using the ground stations.
Traditionally, ground stations download information from satellites on a rigid schedule, meaning users must wait several hours until the next pass when new information is available and can be processed. The company’s new Legion satellites will double the number of times the satellites contact ground stations. In addition, an imagery satellite could revisit the same target as many as 15 times a day. All of that means defense and intelligence agencies could have access to imagery that is a few minutes old, not several hours old.
Turner Brinton, a DigitalGlobe spokesman, declined to comment on the technical aspects of how the company would support the U.S. government.
“Satellite data is incredibly useful for building a wide range of important applications, but it is super complex and expensive to build and operate the infrastructure needed to do so,” Charlie Bell, senior vice president of AWS, said in a press release. “Today, we are giving satellite customers the ability to dynamically scale their ground station antenna use based on actual need. And, they will be able to ingest data straight into AWS, where they can securely store, analyze and transmit products to their customers without needing to worry about building all of the infrastructure themselves.”
In addition, Lockheed Martin and Amazon Web Services announced a new partnership Nov. 27 that would allow customers to download satellite data faster, more often and from multiple satellites at the same time.
That technology is a shoebox-sized antenna and satellite receiver known as Verge. Each antenna would cost about $20,000 and replace larger parabolic antennas, which are often priced at more than $1 m. While Pentagon officials have worried that larger ground stations for military satellite could make easy targets, the relatively small size of Verge could be an attractive feature to defense officials focused on resiliency.
It’s unlikely the Defense Department would rely on the new technology for its satellite downlinks, but Lockheed Martin leaders said they could envision the military would use the ground stations for experimental satellites, particularly those in low-Earth orbit. Or the technology could be used to create a backup ground station for some of the Pentagon’s more sophisticated satellites.
Already, Lockheed Martin has tested a network of 10 S-band antennas in the Denver area that downlinked from a small satellite from the Air Force Research Laboratory, said Rick Ambrose, Lockheed Martin’s executive vice president for space. In addition, the company has also downlinked data from another, unspecified government satellite and sent that data to the agency’s cloud. (Source: C4ISR & Networks)
At Viasat, we’re driven to connect every warfighter, platform, and node on the battlefield. As a global communications company, we power ms of fast, resilient connections for military forces around the world – connections that have the capacity to revolutionize the mission – in the air, on the ground, and at sea. Our customers depend on us for connectivity that brings greater operational capabilities, whether we’re securing the U.S. Government’s networks, delivering satellite and wireless communications to the remote edges of the battlefield, or providing senior leaders with the ability to perform mission-critical communications while in flight. We’re a team of fearless innovators, driven to redefine what’s possible. And we’re not done – we’re just beginning.