Sponsored by Blighter Surveillance Systems
17 Jan 19. Echodyne Radar Selected for Northern Plains’ UTM Pilot Program Testing. UPP Demonstration will utilize Echodyne’s EchoGuard Airspace Management Radar capabilities. Echodyne, the manufacturer of innovative, high-performance radars for government and commercial markets, announced today that it has been selected to participate in Northern Plains UAS Test Site (NPUASTS) industry partnership to test and demonstrate commercial UAS operations in the next phase of DOT/FAA UAS Pilot Program (UPP) testing. Echodyne’s MESA™ radar technology enables an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) system to detect and track commercial drones and manned aircraft, enabling safe operations in the national airspace.
“Echodyne is thrilled to be part of Northern Plains’ next phase of UPP testing,” said Eben Frankenberg, CEO of Echodyne. “Northern Plains has a wealth of UAS testing experience, and we’re excited to be working with them to show how commercial UAS can be deployed without compromising safety. Our radar has demonstrated unrivaled efficacy and reliability in many previous UTM related tests, and we look forward to continuing that demonstration with the Northern Plains team.”
The NPUASTS UPP will focus on advanced airspace, drone, and sensor technology for safe commercial UAS operations, including beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS), night operations, daisy-chained visual operations, higher altitude flights, and more. Echodyne radars will be primarily focused on BVLOS operations as well as supporting other testing plans.
“Northern Plains has assembled a best-in-class team of companies and technologies for the next phase of DOT/FAA UPP Demonstration,” added Chris Theisen, Director of Research and Development at NPUASTS. “Echodyne brings highly regarded radar capabilities, an unmatched reputation for in-field performance, and extensive UAS experience to the team, and we look forward to working with them on a wide battery of UPP tests that continue building the safety case for commercial UAS.”
The Norther Plains UPP partners include many leading UAS companies, such as Simulyze, Harris Corporation, uAvionix, and the University of North Dakota. (Source: BUSINESS WIRE)
17 Jan 19. SiOnyx receives $20m award for US Army Digital Night Vision Project. SiOnyx, LLC, an innovator in advanced CMOS image sensors and high performance camera systems, today announces a $19.9m award for the delivery of digital night vision cameras for the IVAS (Integrated Visual Augmentation System) program. The Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS) is a system designed to incorporate head, body, and weapon technologies on individual Soldiers. It is a single platform that Soldier/Marines can fight, rehearse, and train that provides increased lethality, mobility and situational awareness necessary to achieve overmatch against our current and future adversaries. This system includes a squad-level combat training capability, which is vital for the repeated iterations of training and rehearsals needed to ensure potential future battlefield success.
The agreement was issued under the SOSSEC, Inc. and the Sensors, Communications and Electronics Consortium (SCEC) Other Transaction Agreement on behalf of the US Army’s Night Vision and Electronic Sensor Directorate (NVESD). Under the award, SiOnyx is required to deliver low-light camera modules within two years for prototyping of low-light and night vision capabilities to the IVAS system. (Source: BUSINESS WIRE)
16 Jan 19. Successful Flight Tests with HENSOLDT’s Collision Warning Radar for UAVs. The sensor solutions provider HENSOLDT has successfully concluded flight tests with its collision avoidance radar system for UAVs. This sensor is intended to improve safety in both military and civilian air traffic. HENSOLDT has developed a demonstrator of a so-called detect-and-avoid radar system, which uses the latest radar technology to detect objects in the flight path of a UAV and to give early warning of any threat of collision following precise evaluation of the flight direction. At the same time, the sensor also assumes all the functions of a weather radar system.
In the flight tests, which were carried out on behalf of the German procurement authority BAAINBw and in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Brunswick, the radar demonstrated its capabilities in a real setting, thus confirming the results previously achieved in ground tests. In test flights lasting several hours, the radar installed in a Dornier Do 228 belonging to the DLR reliably detected the test aircraft approaching at different altitudes and angles.
The detect-and-avoid radar system uses state-of-the-art AESA technology (Active Electronically Scanned Array), which allows several detection tasks to be carried out at the same time and enables objects to be detected extremely fast. It replaces the pilot’s visual assessment of the situation. Thanks to its excellent detection capabilities, the multifunction radar is equally suitable for both military and civilian UAVs, e.g. for the delivery of cargo. A second series of flight tests is planned for the coming year.
HENSOLDT is one of the world’s leading radar manufacturers and operates one of Europe’s largest cleanroom production facilities at its Ulm site in order to produce the radio-frequency components required for AESA equipment. The company’s radar systems and radar components are used on board aircraft, satellites, ships and in ground stations. The platforms equipped with HENSOLDT’s devices include the Eurofighter combat aircraft, the TanDEM-X satellites, the US Navy’s littoral combat ships and the German Navy’s frigates. Furthermore, HENSOLDT supplies air traffic control (ATC) authorities and armed forces all over the world with ATC radar systems and transponders.
16 Jan 19. Airport Safety Against Drone Flyovers. HGH Infrared Systems has introduced a new solution to detect, track and classify any types of drones. Edouard Campana, Sales Director at HGH Infrared Systems, said: “Spynel 360° panoramic thermal camera and its Cyclope software are frequently used against drones to ensure the security of national and international events, critical infrastructures, airport and more. The real-time visualisation and detection of multiple targets makes it a unique sensor for ultimate situational awareness.” The CYCLOPE automatic detection software provides advanced features to monitor and analyse the 360° high resolution images captured by SPYNEL sensors. The ADS-B plugin enables aerial target identification and the aircraft ADS-B data can be fused with thermal tracks to differentiate an airplane from a drone. (Source: ESD Spotlight)
15 Jan 19. HELIOS preliminary design review expected this year. Lockheed Martin expects to have its High Energy Laser and Integrated Optical-dazzler with Surveillance (HELIOS) system ready for preliminary design review this year, Paul Lemmo, Lockheed Martin vice-president and general manager, Integrated Warfare Systems and Sensors, said on 15 January during a briefing at the Surface Navy Association 2019 symposium in Arlington, Virginia. Now being designed for US Navy (USN) guided-missile destroyers, HELIOS is meant to help the vessels defend themselves against unmanned aircraft systems (UASs). The USN’s current Aegis Combat Systems are meant to protect against missile or manned aircraft attacks, using a network of sensor cues and fire-control systems to fire the vessel’s own missiles against relatively large and fast-flying threats. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
15 Jan 19. USN set to receive first Raytheon EASR for testing. Raytheon will deliver an Enterprise Air Surveillance Radar (EASR) to the Surface Combat Systems Center Wallops Island, Virginia in early 2019, for developmental testing (DT). That testing is set to begin in the March to June 2019 timeframe. Additionally, the company is expecting a long-lead material contract for EASR later in 2019 for the first production options, Scott Spence, director of naval radar systems for Raytheon IDS, told Jane’s . Raytheon is building two variants of EASR: SPY-6(V)2, a rotating, single-face radar for amphibious warfare ships; and SPY-6(V)3, using three fixed panel antennas, for aircraft carriers. USS Bougainville is expected to be the first ship to receive EASR. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
15 Jan 19. Raytheon selected for classic Hornet AESA radar upgrade. APG-79(v)4 delivers improved range and targeting capability for USMC Hornets. The U.S. Marine Corps selected Raytheon’s APG-79(v)4 AESA radar to equip its F/A-18C/D classic Hornet fleet. Raytheon (NYSE: RTN) will begin delivering radars in 2020 and complete deliveries by 2022. The APG-79(v)4 is a scaled version of the APG-79 AESA radar integrated on the U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Air Force’s Super Hornets and EA-18G Growlers. Along with improved targeting capabilities, crews gain an edge in crucial operations across the spectrum – including air dominance, maritime strike and air-to-surface missions.
“With AESA radars, fighter jet pilots and crews tip the scales in their favor over their adversaries,” said Eric Ditmars, vice president of Raytheon Secure Sensor Solutions. “Now that the APG-79(v)4 is slated to fly on the classic Hornet, Marine Corps pilots will be able to identify, track and engage more targets over a greater distance than ever before.”
Crews will see improved radar reliability, reducing maintenance hours while increasing availability for flight. Because the APG-79(v)4 shares more than 90 percent commonality with the APG-79, the Marine Corps will benefit from the same global sustainment and upgrade path already in place for the system.
15 Jan 19. Most of the world’s airports and leading destinations remain vulnerable to criminal or rogue mayhem. Virtually every one of the world’s commercial airports and leading destinations currently remain vulnerable to criminal abuse or ‘rogue’ operation of drone technology notwithstanding the shock wake-up call from the chaos at Gatwick Airport last month before Christmas and more recently at Heathrow, as well as last week’s exploding drone incident in Yemen.
This warning, from Robert Garbett, founder and Chief Executive of Drone Major Group, the world’s leading global drone and counter drone consultancy, is “because there remains very low awareness among the business community of the extraordinary pace at which drone technology is evolving… and this makes staying ahead of the threat posed by those who would abuse this technology challenging, for even the most competent of businesses and management teams.
“The commercial air drone market is currently still like the Wild West… exciting, and representing unprecedented economic opportunity for companies and organisations which are fast adopting this exceptional technology. However there will always be those who would flaunt laws and regulation to cause maximum disruption around the world. This particularly impacts on more vulnerable sectors such as airports, financial centres, energy facilities, stadiums and concert venues, etc., which require tailored defence strategies to protect against what is a new and real security challenge.
“The British Armed Forces have been world leaders in the use of drone technology, for both offence and defence, for many years, long before the recent adoption by the business world, and it is their techniques which are now being applied, particularly in counter drone strategies which utilise an ever evolving range of advanced technologies to detect, track, identify and defeat the threat posed by those who would abuse air drone technology for nefarious means.
“There are literally hundreds of counter drone products and manufacturers worldwide and the market is expanding on a daily basis making it extremely difficult to keep track… which is one reason why the rapid, often knee-jerk adoption of such technology in the face of media pressure, while sometimes providing a short-term fix, can often be a long term error of judgement and, in isolation of appropriate policies and procedures, is rarely effective.
“Our Counter Drone team, primarily ex-military, continually analyse this market to identify those systems which will be of most appropriate use to our clients in the application of both ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ effect counter drone measures. Soft effect measures include intelligence-led threat identification, robust airspace management with commensurate risk management policies and legal procedures. Hard measures are broken down into ‘Detect, Track and Identify’ and ‘Defeat’ which are subject to strict usage restrictions.
“One of the challenges for our clients in all sectors is the need to adopt drone technology always within a disciplined strategy which supports the organisation, ensures security and also ‘future proofs’ what is put in place. The adoption of counter drone technology is no exception and so we would urge those organisations reacting to recent events to take a breath and think strategically.
“As far as criminals or ‘rogue’ drone operators are concerned… they will always exist… but their task will be made much more difficult by an increasingly informed business community, the putting in place of more sophisticated counter drone strategies, the implementation of the forthcoming ‘Drone Bill’ within the UK and the adoption of the new aerial drone Standards which were launched for public and peer group consultation in November 2018 by the International Standards Organisation (ISO). Their deadline for public responses on this consultation is 21 January 2019…only six days away.”
14 Jan 19. Finland to procure counter-battery radars. The Finnish Defence Forces’ Logistics Command has received a mandate from the Finnish Ministry of Defence for the procurement of counter-battery radars following an international tender process. The radar systems, training support and spare parts will be procured from ELTA Systems. The new systems will enhance the army’s target acquisition capabilities for counter-battery operations. They will also be used for fire observation and air surveillance. The selected system was tested in Finland in spring 2018. Millog and Telva will be in charge of systems maintenance services. Millog is the Finnish Defence Forces strategic partner in maintenance and Telva represents ELTA Systems in Finland. Deliveries are scheduled for 2021. (Source: Shephard)
14 Jan 19. US Navy seeks industry partners for counter UAS research. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division (NSWC Crane) is interested in joint research and development in the characterization, test, and evaluation of Counter UAS threat libraries on multiple host platform sensors. NSWC Crane seeks Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners that possess the expertise, capabilities, facilities for the manufacturing and prototyping of Electro-Optic, and Infrared Sensors. CRADA partners must have experience in the following areas to explore R&D opportunities with the Electro-Optic Technology Division:
- Evaluation of video processor algorithm’s ability to detect, identify, and track small commercial UAS. Must be able to provide full formal descriptions of objective function(s) that meet formal criteria for a metric
- Ability to fuse sensor data from radar and electro-optic sensors to detect, identify, and track small commercial UAS.
- Validate modular open systems architecture (MOSA) for integration into a Government Command and Control software suite according to evaluation criteria.
This synopsis serves as a sources sought for CRADA participants and seeks information from companies capable of providing expertise, capabilities, facilities and experience in any of these fields and applications with respect to a CRADA effort. Any group that believes it has the ability to perform collaboration with NSWC Crane in these areas can identify its capabilities by submitting the information to Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Chief Technology Office (Code 00T), Attn: Mrs. Jenna Dix, Bldg 2036, 300 Hwy 361, Crane, IN 47522 or .
Responses are requested by close of business January 30, 2019. After reviewing the responses, NSWC Crane may request a meeting or teleconference with responding parties to gain further insight into their capabilities.
Solicitation Number: N0016419SNB34
Deadline for submissions: Department of the Navy
Responsible Agency: 30 January 2019
11 Jan 19. New Wave of Night Vision Tech to Boost Soldier Lethality. When Billy Fabian was serving as an infantry officer in Iraq a little more than a decade ago, the U.S. Army had a decided advantage when it came to pursuing the fight at night. It was not, however, without flaws. The goggles he and his fellow soldiers used were sophisticated, but simplistic. At times, they were ineffective.
Though they amplified ambient light, the goggles did not work in complete darkness. They were drowned out by bright light as well. Moreover, although the gear still provided a distinct advantage to troops who wore them, the tactical-advantage gap was closing. Insurgent forces were getting their hands on night-vision goggles. Additionally, soldiers who wore them would use infrared lasers to target adversaries bearing small arms — effectively providing these foes with an indicator of their enemies’ locations.
Though much has changed since then, Pentagon leadership still views regaining the night-vision advantage as a critical goal. Defense Secretary James Mattis has prioritized improving the lethality of close-combat warfighters. Better night-vision goggle systems are a key element of the secretary’s push. Though the armed forces and industry are making steady forward strides, challenges remain.
“A key question is, how do you balance performance with soldier load?” said Fabian, now a senior research fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank. “As our dismounted soldiers get more protection — body armor, etc. — as well as advanced optics such as night vision, it adds a lot of weight.”
The next generation of night-vision technology will address these issues, Fabian believes. Such capabilities would amount to a “pretty huge step,” he said. “All of the improvements would make the dismounted soldier and Marine more lethal and survivable.”
The Army’s soldier lethality cross-functional team, headquartered at Fort Benning, Georgia, is conducting the main work in advancement of night vision.
“We’re looking at improvements across the board,” said Col. Travis Thompson, the team’s chief of staff for soldier lethality.
“With an increase in situational awareness, you may not have to call in on the radio to identify where friendly units are,” Thompson said. “You’re more likely to detect the enemy and be able to engage them in that close fight faster.”
The Army wants new equipment that would increase field of view and depth perception for soldiers in a close fight, and allow soldiers to manipulate the gear “in quick order” when operating, for instance, inside a building, Thompson said.
The effort focuses upon moving toward a binocular system, to replace the monocular one that has been in use for roughly two decades.
Last June, the Army awarded L3 Technologies a three-year, $391m contract to produce and provide the next-generation Enhanced Night Vision Goggle–Binocular (ENVG-B).
For its part, L3 is following the Army’s “system of systems” approach, Lynn Bollengier, vice president and general manager for the company’s warrior missions solutions division, said in a written statement to National Defense.
“There is greater integration amongst the equipment the soldier is carrying, much like the commercial world has integrated consumer products. As a result, our customers are very interested in next-generation and leap-ahead technologies that can improve lethality and reduce warfighter workload,” Bollengier wrote.
L3’s ENVG-B is a prime example. It would allow soldiers to view maps from the Army’s Nett Warrior integrated situational-awareness system, as well as video from their weapons’ sights.
Its binocular capability will increase field of view and depth perception for soldiers involved in close fighting, said Thompson. The visual itself also is changing to white phosphorus from the familiar green phosphorus.
“It will help us as we start to overlay [the display soldiers see] with color from augmented reality. SOCOM [Special Operations Command] soldiers have been using this for quite a few years,” said Thompson.
Fused thermal capability would allow troops to have day-night capability that would function in all environments, Thompson said.
“If you look around a dark corner with no light, unless you have some [enhancement], you won’t identify anything. With thermals, [objects will] stick out quickly,” said Thompson. “You know the enemy is out there. You have to poke your head up to look for him, but the last thing you want to do is expose yourself to the enemy [and] you don’t have a choice.”
The technology, which would include augmented reality as well, has been available for combat vehicles like the M2/M3 Bradley fighting vehicle and M1 Abrams tank for awhile, but only now is making its way to the soldier level. Once it is available, the system would allow soldiers to view everything they would conceivably need to see while looking straight ahead.
No longer would they have to look downward to discern information, as they do with present systems. Besides a visual of what is in front of them, they would know their compass heading, locations of friendlies and potential enemies, and a host of other readings.
The first prototypes should make their way into the field sometime within the next 11 months. Which units would get them still has not been determined. Army Forces Command will make that call in due time, Thompson said. The idea is to place it among the dismounted troops who would need it the most — infantry, combat engineers, combat medics, special operators and scouts.
Also, the new devices would be issued to entire squads rather than two or three members, so that everyone is fighting at the same level of capability. Throughout the process, soldiers will provide their assessments of which components work well and which do not, he said.
A second system under development, the integrated visual augmentation system, or IVAS, would include significantly more sophisticated notification and identification capabilities than the current technology affords.
Instead of a goggle system through a tube, the new system would allow for what Thompson calls “true see-through display” — that is, goggles and glasses that include artificial intelligence and machine learning.
It would be more powerful and robust, but maybe slightly heavier because it entails two lenses instead of one. Still, developers are acutely aware of the weight factor and are working to make it more manageable.
“One system we’re actually looking at [would determine] where we put chips to process information,” Thompson said. If the soldier’s head is closer to the data source, less energy is needed to transfer it from source to user.
“We’re taking this holistic approach to power demand, the amount of power soldiers need, in a package that makes sense,” said Thompson. “This whole process is not about the next, newest and coolest thing. It’s about providing soldiers what they need on the battlefield today and in the future.”
More details about the program should begin to emerge within the next two years, as the system is being developed.
Because the night-vision enhancement initiative would apply to Marines as well, the two services are working closely together and with Special Operations Command to ensure that such systems are acceptable to their missions.
“In the long term, we want improvements and capabilities and are working with the Army and SOCOM … to see where, we align and leverage with each other,” said Billy Epperson, the Marine Corps’ infantry weapons and optics capabilities integration officer.
“It’s no secret that the PDS-14 (night vision monocular) we have currently deployed through the Marine Corps first entered the service with the Defense Department in the mid- to late-1990s,” Epperson said. Input from Marines is essential, he added.
“We always have representatives from warfighters and operating forces as a voice — from the beginning all the way to final selection,” Epperson said. “The last thing we want to do is field something they absolutely hate and refuse to carry.”
Industry participants who are vying for roles in future night-vision development understand that their main goal is to enable individual soldiers and Marines to see better in the battlefield.
“When the [most recent] requirements for the enhanced night vision goggle came out, we immediately started developing a binocular system that would meet them,” said Darrell Hackler, Harris Corp. senior director of global business development for night vision.
The team at Harris is applying its experience in infrared technology and light amplification to “turn night into day for operators,” said Christian Johnson, who manages the company’s Army account.
The Harris system incorporates image-squared technology — which the company touts as having superior capabilities than the past and current night-vision iterations.
“If there is no ambient light to be amplified, [the user] can switch to the thermal camera. Or, in an area where it’s freezing cold and nothing seems to be giving off a thermal image, [it can] put in a thermal image,” Johnson said.
With augmented reality technology, infantry troops would be able to garner navigational information such as compass headings, Johnson said. Goggle displays also would include a blue-force tracker, an indicator of air asserts on station, a means of marking target reference points, and the ability to share information and send text messages to fellow soldiers, Johnson said.
“U.S. forces will have a capability that no one else has,” Johnson said.
Dave Smialek, director of business development, precision guidance and sensing solutions at BAE Systems, said: “The main issue we’re trying to address is improvement for the soldier who is looking to see farther in the battlefield.”
With its Enhanced Night Vision Goggle III and Family of Weapon Sights-Individual (ENVG III/FWS-I) systems, BAE also would provide sharp imagery through thermal technology and rapid target acquisition. Infantry fighters would be able to fire at foes without having to shoulder their weapons.
Each potential supplier of the next night-vision system would be expected to deliver a package that offers greater range, the ability to see through glass, and manageable weight and size — in addition to the aforementioned display enhancements, said Mark Cancian, a senior adviser specializing in international security with the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.
“The problem we’ve always had in the past is weight and power. They’re interesting technologies, but if they weigh too much and you have to plug in a battery every two hours, it’s not very practical,” Cancian said. “These new suites of systems will have to prove themselves in testing and on the battlefield.”
What ultimately could determine how quickly new night-vision gear makes its way to ground troops has little to do with shaking down the technology, Cancian believes.
“The whole close-combat lethality initiative hinges on two things: One is Secretary Mattis sticking around. The other is budget and funding,” Cancian said. “If one of those were to go away, it might take some of the impetus out of this initiative.” (Source: glstrade.com/NDIA)
11 Jan 19. BriteCloud decoy set for Typhoon integration. The UK Royal Air Force (RAF) is introducing the Leonardo BriteCloud expendable active decoy (EAD) into service on its Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 fleet, a Ministry of Defence (MoD) contract notice has revealed.
This follows the introduction to service last year of the 55mm diameter BriteCloud radio frequency (RF) countermeasures device on the Tornado GR4 to meet an urgent capability requirement (UCR).
Developed by the UK arm of Leonardo Electronics, BriteCloud is a second-generation expendable digital radio frequency memory (DFRM) jammer designed to provide fast jet aircraft with effective ‘end game’ protection against advanced RF-guided missile threats and/or tracking radars. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
11 Jan 19. US Army seeks high-altitude ISR aircraft. The US Army has extended the deadline for responses to a request for information (RFI) for a high-altitude airborne intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (AISR) capability that was issued in late 2018. The RFI was first issued by the Special Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) Product Directorate of the Fixed Wing Project Office (FWPO) on 28 November 2018, and extended on 10 January. As noted in the RFI, the army is looking for an aircraft that can operate above 35,000 ft above mean sea level (ASL); can operate in an anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) environment; has an endurance of eight hours or greater; can carry communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) payloads; is equipped with tactical communications; features novel and advanced threat detection and avoidance techniques/systems; is Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) compliant; carries aircraft survivability equipment (ASE); and features aviation mission equipment/assured positioning navigation and timing (AME/A-PNT). The US Army fields a medium-altitude AISR capability with the Beechcraft King Air 350ER aircraft, which has been modified under the Enhanced Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System (EMARSS) programme. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
Blighter® Surveillance Systems (BSS) is a UK-based electronic-scanning radar and sensor solution provider delivering an integrated multi-sensor package to systems integrators comprising the Blighter electronic-scanning radars, cameras, thermal imagers, trackers and software solutions. Blighter radars combine patented solid-state Passive Electronic Scanning Array (PESA) technology with advanced Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) and Doppler processing to provide a robust and persistent surveillance capability. Blighter Surveillance Systems is a Plextek Group company, a leading British design house and technology innovator, and is based at Great Chesterford on the outskirts of Cambridge, England.
The Blighter electronic-scanning (e-scan) FMCW Doppler ground surveillance radar (GSR) is a unique patented product that provides robust intruder detection capabilities under the most difficult terrain and weather conditions. With no mechanical moving parts and 100% solid-state design, the Blighter radar family of products are extremely reliable and robust and require no routine maintenance for five years. The Blighter radar can operate over land and water rapidly searching for intruders as small a crawling person, kayaks and even low-flying objects. In its long-range modes the Blighter radar can rapidly scan an area in excess of 3,000 km² to ensure that intruders are detected, identified and intercepted before they reach critical areas.