Sponsored by Lincad
31 May 19. Hungary May Scrap Swedish Jet Deal for US F-35 Over War of Words – Report. The Swedish government has unleashed a series of attacks against Hungary over its resistance to multiculturalism, perceived lack of feminism, and political correctness. Hungary is considering scrapping its lease agreement for Jas 39 Gripen and replacing the 14 Swedish fighter jets with US-made F-35, which may cost Sweden billions of kronor and thousands of job opportunities, the Swedish news outlet Fria Tiderreported.
The bilateral lease agreement is now at stake over Sweden’s “constant smear campaign” against the Hungarian government. Specifically, Hungary is considering replacing the lease agreement with a $1 billion deal with US firm Lockheed Martin. The choice is between the latest model of the F-16 or the fifth generation F-35. Sweden’s future on the Hungarian defence market currently looks gloomy.
“The Swedes have been digging their own grave with their many anti-Hungarian attacks. It is conceivable that we are buying F-35s instead”, a senior Hungarian government official told the Hungarian news outlet Direkt36 referring to the Gripens and the frequent criticism coming from the Swedish government regarding the rule of law and human rights in Hungary.
Sweden recently waded into a war of words with Hungary, as Social Minister Annika Strandhäll likened Hungary’s family policy, where tax relief is provided to families with many children, to Nazism. Strandhäll tweeted that this policy “reeked of the 1930s”. Following the incident, the Hungarian government summoned Sweden’s Budapest Ambassador Niclas Trouvé in protest against the Swedish government’s comparison between Hitler’s Germany and Hungary.
Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven has also contributed to the souring of Hungarian-Swedish relations by repeated criticism of Budapest’s reluctance to accept mass immigration. Recently, Löfven has threatened to strangle the flow of EU support to Hungary and Poland for “violating the EU’s basic values” and refusing to accept refugees. Löfven also suggested that the democratic rights in Hungary were “limited”.
Even the Swedish opposition has been highly critical of Hungary. In February, Moderate party leader Ulf Kristersson took the initiative to exclude the Hungarian government party Fidesz from the EU party group EPP in an opinion piece in Aftonbladet. Among other things, he accused the Hungarian government of anti-Semitism for criticising billionaire George Soros’ involvement in immigration politics.
Meanwhile, the Swedish mainstream media have been constantly attacking Hungary for “undemocratic”, “authoritarian” and even “dictatorial” ways, “right-wing populism” and “xenophobia”.
The Jas Gripen is Saab’ top-tier fighter jet, which Sweden is pinning its export hopes on. Gripen C/D fighters are currently in service with two NATO-members nations, the Czech Republic and Hungary, as well as South Africa and Thailand. According to Fria Tider, since its inception in 1982, the Jas project has cost SEK 200bn. Hungary’s departure from the cooperation would deepen the dent. (Source: defense-aerospace.com/Sputnik News)
31 May 19. Trump to threaten curb on intel sharing with UK over Huawei. US president preparing to issue warning during three-day trip to Britain next week. Donald Trump will threaten to limit intelligence sharing with Britain if the UK government allows Huawei to build part of the country’s 5G mobile network, a message he plans to deliver in person during his visit to London next week. British and American officials said on Thursday that the US president had decided to raise the issue during the three-day visit to Britain after repeated efforts by his aides failed to convince some in the UK government to block the Chinese equipment supplier. The Trump administration is taking steps to ban Huawei equipment from its 5G networks, and has been urging allies to do the same, warning that it could be used by Beijing for spying.
It has become one of the most sensitive bilateral issues between Mr Trump and Prime Minister Theresa May in recent months because of signs Britain was moving towards allowing Huawei to bid for the UK’s next-generation mobile network. One White House official said Huawei would “obviously be on the agenda”. Another person involved in trip planning said Mr Trump was ready to make his objections known both in public and in private. “The president is preparing to repeat the message that Chinese involvement in 5G could pose significant challenges for US-UK intelligence co-operation. He is prepared to go hard on this issue,” the person said. Last month, leaked reports from the UK’s National Security Council suggested ministers were prepared to allow Huawei to build noncore parts of its 5G data networks, despite the frequent warnings from Washington. But US officials hope they still might be able to persuade Mrs May to overturn that decision. John Bolton, the US national security adviser, said on Thursday the British government had not reached a final decision about Huawei’s involvement.
“These are the sorts of things you can’t resolve in one meeting,” he said. “The discussions continue — I’ve been in conversation with Mark Sedwill [head of the UK civil service] about this frequently — and I’m sure they will go on.”
Mr Bolton added that the US was prepared to accept “zero” risk allowing Huawei into its own national 5G infrastructure. The US has signalled it was preparing to reassess intelligence sharing over the Huawei issue before, though Mr Trump’s threat would be a significant escalation, according to experts, especially if he decides to go public with the warning. Shortly after Washington ordered its own Huawei ban, Robert Strayer, a senior state department official, warned: “If other countries insert and allow untrusted vendors to build out and become the vendors for their 5G networks, we will have to reassess the ability for us to share information and be connected with them in the ways that we are today.” Mr Trump’s direct intervention while in London would give ammunition to those in the British cabinet who want to take a harder line towards the Chinese company. “He wants to make it clear that the China 5G issue is very damaging as far as the US is concerned,” said Nile Gardiner, a foreign-policy analyst at The Heritage Foundation think-tank in Washington. (Source: FT.com)
30 May 19. Spanish defense contractors are itching to get a piece of FCAS. Spanish defense companies are chomping at the bit to get into the business of building Europe’s next-generation combat aircraft, just as the government is about to formally enter the Franco-German project.
While the extent of the Spanish industry participation in the Future Combat Air System program is still an open question, some of the companies at the inaugural FEINDEF defense expo in Madrid, Spain, are beginning to jockey for position.
Brig Gen. Juan Pablo Sanchez de Lara, chief of the Spanish Air Force’s plans division, told reporters at the expo that industrial cooperation is “essential for us.”
“We are not new in the business,” he said. “Of course Spanish companies are very keen to participate.”
Airbus, for example, which is already a prime contractor besides Dassault from France, is looking to bring into play its local work with the Spanish Air Force for the cockpit design of the future fighter aircraft.
The Spanish air service presented an Airbus-made cockpit prototype — part futuristic lab, part test bed for additional design work — at its booth, pitching it as a contender for the FCAS program. The setup features a large, panoramic screen similar to that in the F-35, sprinkling in some traditional controls beside the pilot.
Officials said the cockpit is the result of previous concept work, concluding that fusing information and commanding nearby drones, for example, are key requirements. Tests are ongoing based on operational vignettes crafted by the Air Force to see how pilots handle workload, stress and the torrent of information thrown at them during flight.
When the first FCAS aircraft takes to the skies around 2040, “the scenarios will be more complex,” Ignacio de Castro Vidal, Airbus Defence and Space future capabilities program manager at the defense giant’s Madrid location, predicted in an interview with Defense News.
That is a reference to the expectation that warfare itself will be more complicated, but it’s also an acknowledgment that the program is designed with so much networked technology that the task of flying the aircraft must be kept manageable.
To increase the ease of use for pilots, the company plans to lean heavily on voice commands to operate the aircraft’s systems, de Castro Vidal said.
Spanish electronics specialist Indra is also eyeing work on elements of the next-gen fighter aircraft.
“Indra is the second provider of avionic systems for the Eurofighter,” Pedro Barco, the company’s director of platforms, wrote in a statement to Defense News. “The experience gained in this project allows us to play a key role as integrator of the system of systems for the FCAS.
“In particular, we have a strong experience in electronic warfare systems, voice and data communications, and radar detection and identification systems.”
Eurofighter Typhoon-maker Airbus has pitched upgraded versions of that jet as a gap filler until the new aircraft is developed and built, saying that the planned upgrades would serve as something of a sandbox to try new air warfare concepts. Spain and Germany fly that aircraft, while France has the Rafale.
As for engines, ITP Aero, based north of Madrid, hopes to share development work with France’s Safran and Germany’s MTU.
“ITP is looking forward to the next step of the program, and we want to be a part of it from the beginning,” Marta Gimeno Garcia-Andrade, director of the company’s defense business unit, told Defense News.
She said a key area of expertise for ITP Aero lies in low-pressure turbines and movable, “thrust-vectoring” nozzles.
Several Spanish defense executives at the FEINDEF expo said expect Spain’s formal integration into FCAS to take place at the Paris Air Show in mid-June.
Officials in Germany, however, said earlier this week the exact sequence of extending the program’s framework agreement to include Madrid was still in flux. That is because the German parliament has yet to greenlight funding for an ongoing study contract and because legal issues with the agreement text may not be fully sorted out in time. (Source: Defense News)
30 May 19. European defense industry could come to regret new US weapons fund. A new initiative by the Trump administration to subsidize U.S. weapons sales to some former Warsaw Pact countries could rankle European defense leaders, some of whom are fuming over Washington’s recent request for full access to European Union defense coffers.
The European Recapitalization Incentive Program, or ERIP, a new tool developed with U.S. European Command to speed the process of getting allied nations off Russian gear, plans to spread $190m to six countries: Albania, Bosnia and North Macedonia, plus the EU member states of Croatia, Greece and Slovakia.
It’s a relatively small amount of money, but the promise of expansion, along with the fact those funds will be used expressly to get countries onto American-made products, likely means European defense firms will keep a wary eye on the program’s future, once they fully get wind of it.
Asked about a European response to ERIP, analysts noted that the advent of the funding stream could set off a flurry of activity among European defense contractors, who could see it less as a move to benefit allied nations and more as an industry power grab from American companies that would benefit from smaller nations with limited budgets addicted to U.S. kit.
The program kicks off in the wake of tense trans-Atlantic relations and a push by defense officials in Washington to have unfettered access to the emerging pot of European defense money, namely the European Defence Fund and the associated collaborative projects known as PESCO.
Washington’s terse request to allow non-EU members into an initiative designed to beef up the bloc’s organic defense capabilities was seen by some in Europe as evidence that America may be focused more on selling its own weapons than letting Europe become a defense player in its own right.
“From a European manufacturer perspective, you look at this and think how much of this is altruistic and how much of this is about trying to ensure U.S. market access and lock some countries into an American approach?” questioned Douglas Barrie of the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies.
“This is a big deal, if they are successful in making this program go,” said Jim Townsend, a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Europe now with the Center for New American Security. “If you’re a European defense company, you’re going, ‘I hope the Americans don’t make this financial assistance into a big program,’ because it’s going to undercut them.”
And, “if you’re an American arms dealer you want to get in on that. That’s manna from heaven for them.”
The six countries are divided into two focus areas: Albania, Bosnia and Slovakia replacing helicopters; and Croatia, Greece and North Macedonia replacing infantry fighting vehicles. Those are two areas with plenty of European suppliers who would love to keep away their American competitors.
In particular, Barrie noted, the countries supporting Airbus and Italy’s Leonardo would likely move to protect their helicopter market share, while multiple nations have indigenous ground vehicles they want to sell.
Fundamentally, both analysts agreed that if these countries with limited defense budgets get American subsidies to start buying U.S. gear, they are likely to stay with that equipment in the long term, including the lucrative maintenance tails. That means bad news for European manufacturers, and may lead to some sort of response.
“If I was an industry in Europe” and saw this program growing, Barries mused, “then I would be tempted to be whispering in my government’s ear to do something similar.”
And the program could expand, making it more of a challenger for European firms. Sometime in late June or early July, the U.S. State Department is expected to make a decision on whether to launch a second ERIP round, based on reprogrammed fiscal 2019 dollars.
If approved, officials will start identifying new projects at the end of the fiscal year, which could include new countries, such as Poland, Hungry or the Baltic nations, where European firms have been hoping to compete. (Source: glstrade.com/Defense News)
30 May 19. How U.S. sanctions over a Russian weapon could rattle Turkey. Turkey is on the cusp of facing U.S. sanctions over its decision to buy a Russian S-400 missile defence system, leaving its already soft currency and economy vulnerable and raising questions over its position within NATO and the region.
If no solution is found in coming weeks and U.S.-Turkish tensions continue to worsen, tit-for-tat sanctions could hit trade between the allies and prolong a recession in Turkey that has already tested President Tayyip Erdogan’s grip on power.
Turkey also risks being rapidly cut out of the production and use of American F-35 fighter jets, which could mark a step towards a re-evaluation of its 67-year membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
“It’s very complex to resolve because both U.S. and Turkish officials see this as a reflection of a larger geo-political balancing,” said Galip Dalay, visiting scholar at the University of Oxford’s politics and international relations department.
“Sanctions would have a very consequential effect on Turkey, but probably not mark a breaking point in its U.S. relationship,” he said.
Ankara and Washington have squabbled for months over the Turkish plan to buy the S-400s, which the United States says is incompatible with the Western alliance’s defence network and poses a threat to the F-35s that Turkey also plans to buy.
Turkey says defending its territory poses no threat to allies, and stresses it has met all NATO obligations.
Both sides are entrenched even while they have repeated a desire to avoid so-called CAATSA sanctions, which by U.S. law would be triggered when the Russian anti-aircraft weapon arrives on Turkish soil, possibly as soon as July.
An agreement to delay shipment of the S-400s could still open the door to U.S. President Donald Trump convincing Erdogan to turn his back on what the Turkish leader has repeatedly called a “done deal” with Russia.
The pair agreed on Wednesday to meet on the sidelines of a G-20 conference on June 28-29.
Yet Ankara’s ties with Moscow have been strengthening, and Turkey’s defence minister said last week Turkish military personnel were in Russia for S-400 training. In response, the United States is considering halting the training of Turkish pilots on F-35 stealth fighters in Arizona.
The showdown comes as the Russia-backed Syrian army escalates an assault on some Turkish-backed rebels near Turkey’s border. More broadly in the Middle East, the United States is ramping up pressure on Turkey and other nations to isolate Iran including blocking all Iranian oil exports.
“If the U.S. sanctions are bad, Turkey could reconsider its decision to comply with U.S. sanctions on Iran,” said Dalay.
‘PATH TO ESCALATION’
Washington wants Ankara to buy its alternative Patriot surface-to-air missile batteries and has made an offer that expires on June 4, according to a person familiar with the matter.
If Ankara accepts delivery of the S-400s as planned, the U.S. Congress has moved to block delivery of F-35s to Turkey and remove it from the list of nations working together to build them.
The delivery would also force Trump to select five of 12 possible sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, or CAATSA, which targets purchases of military equipment from NATO foe Russia.
The sanctions range from banning visas and denying access to the U.S.-based Export-Import Bank, to the harsher options of blocking any transactions with the U.S. financial system and denying export licenses.
Trump may initially choose milder options targeting individual Turks rather than the government, a decision that could buy time for more diplomacy even while it may prompt Congress to separately impose tougher sanctions.
“There is a U.S. reticence to completely block the military-industrial relationship with Turkey,” said Sinan Ulgen, a former Turkish diplomat and a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels.
Yet U.S. sanctions of any sort would likely hammer the Turkish lira, which has shed 14% of its value against the dollar this year in part due to fraying U.S. ties.
Last year, a separate set of U.S. sanctions and tariffs over a jailed U.S. pastor helped set off a currency crisis that knocked 30% off the lira, tipped Turkey into recession and rattled emerging markets around the world.
Ratings agency Moody’s said this month that Turkey’s political risk is “high” and warned that the S-400s could trigger not only U.S. but also NATO sanctions.
Turkey has a track record of responding in kind to foreign sanctions and tariffs.
Ulgen said any sanctions dispute could escalate into tariffs that harm U.S.-based Lockheed Martin Corp’s business with Turkish industrial companies, and even threaten future upgrades to Turkey’s existing fleet of F-16 jets.
“Heavier sanctions could follow if the United States finds itself on a path to escalation with Turkey, beyond the usual rhetoric,” he said. (Source: Reuters)
29 May 19. Germany to take up European next-gen fighter funding next week. With Spain on track to join a German-French quest for a new European combat aircraft, lawmakers in Germany next week are expected to decide on Berlin’s initial funding contribution. June 5 will be the last penultimate session of the Bundestag’s defense and budget committees before the parliamentary summer break begins in late June. It is also the last opportunity to secure approval for a €65m study contract for the Future Combat Air System before the June 16-23 Paris Air Show. German and French officials envision some level of pomp and circumstance at the event to cement their ambitious sixth-generation fighter plans.
For now, the idea is to have a framework agreement signed by the two defense ministers, Florence Parly and Ursula von der Leyen, even if a final okay by German lawmakers was still outstanding. In that case, a contingency clause would be added to the text to reflect that the pact is preliminary until Germany’s legislature approves it.
Defense officials in Berlin said they expect parliamentary approval eventually, but acknowledged that the timing is tight.
Meanwhile, staffs are working behind the scenes to modify the slate of program governance documents to reflect Spain’s participation. It remains to be seen whether those tweaks, which include questions of intellectual property ownership, can be sorted out in time to warrant a senior-level Spanish government representative joining the festivities at Paris.
A German defense spokesman stressed that Spain’s participation in FCAS program was assured, and that only legal matters had yet to the sorted out.
In that spirit, Germany’s choice to lead a delegation to the inaugural FEINDEF defense expo here appears apt: Luftwaffe Brig. Gen. Gerald Funke, who also oversees FCAS planning for Germany, could be spotted at the opening event. If the Bundestag approves, fully integration Spain into the program would amount to addressing the “devil in the details,” he told Defense News.
Airbus and Dassault are the main contractors for the ambitious air-warfare program. Including Spain likely would mean Airbus, which has a sizable footprint here, would reshuffle its share of work to include Spanish industry. (Source: Defense News)
29 May 19. NCI Agency’s next round of spending focuses heavily on missile defence technologies. The NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCI Agency) plans to spend EUR1.4bn (USD1.6bn) on its next tranche of cyber, command, control, communications, computers (C4), and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) acquisitions. The lion’s share of the money will go towards C4 technologies for missile defence, deployable communications, air command, and cyber defence.
Details of the spending were released after the agency concluded its annual NITEC conference in Oslo with technology companies on 20–22 May, when NCI Agency general manager Kevin J Scheid told the community he wants it “to be the lead dog” for developing the information technology capabilities NATO needs for its operations. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
28 May 19. U.S. may suspend training of Turkish pilots for F-35 jets over Russia missile deal. The United States is seriously considering suspending training for Turkish pilots on advanced F-35 fighter jets as Ankara moves ahead with plans to purchase a Russian missile defence system despite objections from Washington, sources told Reuters on Tuesday.
The two NATO allies have argued for months over Turkey’s order for the Russian S-400 defences, which Washington says are incompatible with the Western alliance’s defence network and would pose a threat to American F-35 stealth fighters which Turkey also plans to buy.
The two sources, who are familiar with Turkey’s role in the F-35 programme and who spoke on condition of anonymity, said a final decision had not yet been made.
The deliberation follows signs that Turkey is moving ahead with the S-400 purchase. Defence Minister Hulusi Akar said on May 22 that Turkish military personnel were receiving training in Russia to use the S-400, and said Russian personnel may come to Turkey.
Turkish pilots have also been training at Luke Air Force Base in Arizona. It was unclear whether a decision to suspend their training would mean they would have to leave the country, or would be allowed to remain at the base until a final decision is made about Turkey’s future in the F-35 programme.
The United States has said plainly that Turkey cannot have the S-400 and be part of the F-35 programme. The F-35 is made by Lockheed Martin Corp.
If Turkey was removed from the programme, it would be one of the most significant ruptures in recent history in the relationship between the two allies, experts say.
“Washington is signalling that while it would rather not break military ties with Turkey, it is ready to do so if Ankara does not change its mind regarding the S-400 purchase,” said Soner Cagaptay, director of the Turkish programme at the Washington Institute.
Strains in ties between Washington and Ankara already extend beyond the F-35 to include conflicting strategy in Syria, Iran sanctions and the detention of U.S. consular staff in Turkey.
The Pentagon and State Department declined to comment on any deliberations about the pilots. But Pentagon spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Mike Andrews noted discussions are taking place with Ankara on potentially buying the Patriot missile defence system.
Andrews said the Patriot system, made by Raytheon Co., “remains a robust, NATO-interoperable alternative to the S-400 for (Turkey’s) national defence requirements.”
On Monday, Turkish broadcaster Haberturk quoted Akar as saying in an interview that the delivery of the S-400 may not happen in June, when Turkey previously said the missiles were due to arrive. He added the agreement was a done deal, however.
“They may not make it by June but they will come in the months ahead. The process has begun,” he was quoted as saying.
Objecting to Ankara’s planned Russian defence purchase, the United States in late March halted delivery of equipment related to the F-35 to Turkey, which is both a buyer and a production partner in the programme. The move was the first concrete step of what could eventually be the full removal of Turkey from the F-35 programme.
The United States has warned that if Turkey takes delivery of the Russian system, it will also trigger U.S. sanctions under CATSAA, a law calling for sanctions against countries procuring military equipment from Russia.
Turkey has said that as a NATO member it poses no threat to the United States and the sanctions should not apply. Ankara has also increasingly pinned its hopes on President Donald Trump to protect it from such penalties.
U.S. officials have called Turkey’s planned purchase of the S-400 system “deeply problematic.” Washington and other NATO allies that own F-35s fear the system’s radar will learn how to spot and track the jet, making it less able to evade Russian weapons. (Source: Reuters)
27 May 19. The Dutch Government Is Putting Extra Money into Defense. In the meantime, the cabinet is putting extra money into Defense. Structurally, this involves an additional €162m per year. The amount goes up to €461m and a total of €1.5bn until 2024. That is stated in the Spring Memorandum that was presented to the Lower House today. With the extra money, investments are made in personnel and a next step is taken in the realization of agreements made within the NATO context.
Defense Minister Ank Bijleveld-Schouten calls it a good and meaningful step: “This extra money shows that Defense is one of the top priorities of this Cabinet. The Cabinet takes the current threats seriously and attaches great importance to our security. The Netherlands is also seeing that we live up to our commitments, and are a reliable ally within NATO.”
The government has already announced the extra investments in Defense in December 2018 in the National Plan for NATO. This was done on the basis of agreements from 2014 to distribute the burden within the alliance more evenly and to strengthen the effectiveness of NATO and the EU.
Bijleveld-Schouten: “The agreement is to move the Defense budget towards the NATO norm of 2% of the Gross Domestic Product in 10 years’ time. We are not there yet with this step. Therefore, further steps are still needed.”
There is also more support for special forces on the wish list.
The needs of NATO are leading in the distribution of the extra money. Investments are also made in staff. In December, the cabinet set 5 priorities based on NATO capacity objectives: extra F-35s, more fire power on land and at sea, more support for special forces and expansion of cyber and intelligence capacity.
The money that is released with the Spring Memorandum is insufficient to invest in all priorities. Choices have to be made and that will happen in the coming months. (Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com) (Source: defense-aerospace.com/Dutch Ministry of Defence)
28 May 19. Poland Plans to Buy 32 F-35A Fighters: Minister. Poland plans to buy 32 Lockheed Martin F-35A fighters to replace Soviet-era jets, Defence Minister Mariusz Blaszczak said on Tuesday, amid the growing assertiveness of neighbour Russia. “Today we sent a request for quotation (LOR) to our American partners regarding the purchase of 32 F-35A aircraft along with a logistics and training package,” Blaszczak tweeted. The United States is expected to expand sales of F-35 fighters to five nations including Poland as European allies bulk up their defenses in the face of a strengthening Russia, the Pentagon said last month. Poland is among NATO member countries that spend at least 2% of GDP on defence. Warsaw agreed in 2017 to raise defence spending gradually from 2% to 2.5% of GDP, meaning annual spending should nearly double to about 80bn zlotys ($21bn) by 2032. (Source: defense-aerospace.com/Reuters)
Lincad is a leading expert in the design and manufacture of batteries, chargers and associated products for a range of applications across a number of different sectors. With a heritage spanning more than three decades in the defence and security sectors, Lincad has particular expertise in the development of reliable, ruggedised products with high environmental, thermal and electromagnetic performance. With a dedicated team of engineers and production staff, all product is designed and manufactured in-house at Lincad’s facility in Ash Vale, Surrey. Lincad is ISO 9001 and TickITplus accredited and works closely with its customers to satisfy their power management requirements.
Lincad is also a member of the Joint Supply Chain Accreditation Register (JOSCAR), the accreditation system for the aerospace, defence and security sectors, and is certified with Cyber Essentials, the government-backed, industry supported scheme to help organisations protect themselves against common cyber attacks. The majority of Lincad’s products contain high energy density lithium-ion technology, but the most suitable technology for each customer requirement is employed, based on Lincad’s extensive knowledge of available electrochemistries. Lincad offers full life cycle product support services that include repairs and upgrades from point of introduction into service, through to disposal at the end of a product’s life. From product inception, through to delivery and in-service product support, Lincad offers the high quality service that customers expect from a recognised British supplier.