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08 Nov 18. Indo Defence 2018: Indonesia acquires follow-on batch of Skyshield air-defence system. Key Points:
- Indonesia has signed a second contract for the Skyshield air-defence system with Rheinmetall
- Deliveries, which are scheduled to begin in 2019, will bolster the air force’s base-defence capabilities
The Indonesian Air Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Udara or TNI-AU) is scheduled to begin receiving its second batch of Oerlikon Skyshield air-defence effectors and sensors from late-2019, a representative from Rheinmetall confirmed with Jane’s on 8 November at the Indo Defence 2018 exhibition in Jakarta. The equipment will be delivered under a contract that was signed by the Indonesian government in mid-2017, but became effective only in 2018. It is Indonesia’s second contract for a similar air-defence system with Rheinmetall, and the disparity between its signing date, and its effective date was due to funding issues, said the company.
Rheinmetall has declined to reveal the number of effectors and sensors that have been acquired under the second contract, citing customer confidentiality issues. The Skyshield air-defence system is operated by the TNI-AU’s special forces ground corps known as the Korps Pasukan Khas (PASKHAS). The system, which was first acquired by the Indonesian government in 2009, is deployed primarily for protection of airstrips, and other critical infrastructure.
Jane’s understands that TNI-AU infrastructure currently utilising the system are the Supadio, Halim Perdanakusuma, and Hasanuddin air bases. Skyshield is a short-range air-defence system that can engage low-level threats from air-launched weapons, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), helicopters, and ground attack aircraft. The system’s typical setup includes a tracking and surveillance radar unit, a remote command post, and 35 mm revolver gun mounts that fire the programmable Advanced Hit Efficiency and Destruction (AHEAD) ammunition rounds. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
08 Nov 18. Syrian S-300 conversion reportedly completed. Russian technicians have completed the conversion of the S-300 long-range air-defence systems delivered to Syria to the S-300PMU-2 export standard, the TASS news agency reported on 7 November. It quoted a military diplomatic source as saying that the systems delivered to Syria in October were originally a mix of S-300PM and S-300PM-2 components. “Now all three S-300PMU-2 battalions are ready for combat work in Syria. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
08 Nov 18. Airshow China 2018: Upgraded Z-10ME attack helicopter breaks cover. The Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) has unveiled an improved version of its Zhishengji-10ME (Z-10ME), an export-oriented variant of the People’s Liberation Army Air Force’s (PLAAF’s) Z-10K all-weather multirole attack helicopter, for the first time in public at the Airshow China 2018 exhibition in Zhuhai. Developed by AVIC’s helicopter division Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation (CAIC), the tandem-seat Z-10ME initially surfaced as a conceptual model at Paris Air Show 2017, but the first production-ready helicopter – with serial number Z-10ME001 – was already flying by September 2018.
The latest variant incorporates several enhancements over the in-service Z-10K, with active and passive survivability modifications including a comprehensive airborne countermeasures suite comprising an indigenously developed missile approach warning system (MAWS) and radar warning receiver (RWR), which can be configured to automatically dispense chaff or flares from two box-shaped 6×4 dispenser systems on either side of the fuselage.
Meanwhile, passive defences include a revised engine nozzle layout that is upturned to channel hot exhaust gases upwards to reduce the helicopter’s infrared (IR) signature, as opposed to the baseline People’s Liberation Army (PLA) army aviation Z-10 and PLAAF Z-10K’s conventional sideways exhaust configuration. The Z-10ME is also outfitted with inlet particle separators (IPS) for the twin intakes to reduce sand, dust, and other harmful solid particulate damage to critical engine and propulsion components resulting in power loss. The Z-10ME on display also featured appliqué armour panels – widely reported to be manufactured from extremely light but robust graphene super material – that have been attached to the helicopter’s fuselage just immediately under and slightly forward of both cockpit’s side windows, with the front-most armour panel wrapping around the MAWS sensor module. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
08 Nov 18. CASC testing TL-4 ATGW. The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is testing its newest TL-4 anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) system, a company representative told Jane’s at the 6–11 November Airshow China 2018 defence exhibition in Zhuhai. The firm is about to complete trials using the system’s anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), said the official, adding that about 40 TL-4 missiles have already been test-fired, successfully destroying the intended targets. The missile is housed in a protective launch container that is 1.2m long, 174mm wide, and 178mm high. Its weight, with the missile enclosed within, is stated to be 28.5kg. The man-portable variant of the system comprises a tripod-mounted guidance unit and two munitions and can be transported to the battlefield by three soldiers, the representative added. The TL-4 missile can be fitted with either a tandem shaped-charge anti-armour warhead or a high-explosive fragmentation warhead. The ATGM is controlled by an inertial measurement unit coupled with an infrared (IR) seeker. The ATGM uses a wireless datalink to transfer video data from its IR seeker to the guidance unit, and can engage a target at a distance ranging between 0.5 km and 6 km, the manufacturer said without specifying the ATGM’s armour-piercing capacity. The guidance unit of the TL-4 weighs 30 kg and incorporates both daylight and thermal channels. The unit can detect a target at a distance of up to 6.5 km during the day and 6 km at night. “The TL-4 anti-tank system features a continuous working time of approximately one hour and is activated in about 30 seconds,” said the company official. The system’s tripod has a traverse angle between –60° and 60°, and an elevation angle between –10° and 10°. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
07 Nov 18. Brazilian Army receives fewer ASTROS II Mk 6 vehicles than planned. The Brazilian Army is to receive five fewer Artillery SaTuration ROcket System (ASTROS) II Mk 6 vehicles than planned under the ASTROS 2020 Army Strategic Program (Prg EE ASTROS 2020), receiving 45 vehicles instead of 50. Twenty-nine Mk 6 vehicles have already been inducted, while authorisation to purchase a further 16 has recently been given. Forty vehicles will equip the army’s 16th Missiles and Rockets Group (16º GMF), which is being stood up in Formosa, Goiás state. The 16º GMF will consist of three batteries, each equipped with 13 Mk 6 vehicles comprising six 6×6 AV-LMU launcher vehicles equipped with the AV-PLM multiple launch platform; three 6×6 AV-RMD ammunition resupply vehicles; a 6×6 AV-UCF fire control vehicle equipped with a Rheinmetall Fieldguard 3 radar; a 6×6 AV-OFVE workshop vehicle; a 4×4 AV-MET meteorological vehicle; and a 4×4 AV-PCC battery command-and-control (C2) post. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
07 Nov 18. Image shows ground-launched variant of China’s YJ-12 anti-ship missile. An image has emerged on online forums confirming that a ground-launched variant of China’s YJ-12 ramjet-powered, radar-guided anti-ship missile is in service with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) as part of a coastal defence system. The missile is shown in the picture being launched from a five-axle transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) at an undisclosed location. The TEL and launch containers are similar to those used with the CJ-10 cruise missile. It is likely that the photographed system is the same one as that referred to by US network CNBC as the YJ-12B. Citing sources with direct knowledge of US intelligence reports, the media outlet reported on 2 May that Beijing had installed YJ-12B systems along with and HQ-9B self-propelled surface-to-air missile systems on Fiery Cross Reef, Subi Reef, and Mischief Reef in the disputed South China Sea. A few weeks later, on 23 May, the United States disinvited China from participating in this year’s multinational ‘Rim of the Pacific’ (‘RIMPAC’) maritime exercise due to what Washington described as Beijing’s “continued militarisation of disputed features in the South China Sea”, which “only serves to raise tensions and destabilise the region”.
“While China has maintained that the construction of the islands is to ensure safety at sea, navigation assistance, search and rescue, fisheries protection, and other non-military functions, the placement of these weapon systems is only for military use,” stressed US Department of Defense (DoD) spokesperson Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Logan at the time, calling on Beijing to “immediately” remove the military systems and “reverse course on the militarisation of disputed South China Sea features”. The YJ-12 missile, which has an estimated maximum range of 500 km, has a long ogival nose and a roughly constant-diameter cylindrical body, to which four rectangular-section fairings are attached. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
07 Nov 18. Sea Ceptor aims for corvette retrofit. European guided weapons house MBDA (Hall D, Stand D210) is pushing its new Sea Ceptor local area anti-air missile system as a potential retrofit for the Indonesian Navy’s three Bung Tomo-class corvettes, writes Richard Scott. Based on the new Common Anti-air Modular Missile (CAMM) effector, Sea Ceptor has been ordered by the UK Ministry of Defence to replace VL Seawolf on the Royal Navy’s Type 23 frigates, and to equip new Type 26 frigates from build. The system has also secured export orders from New Zealand and Chile for frigate upgrade programmes. The 95m Bung Tomo-class ships were originally designed to receive the VL Seawolf point defence missile system (with space for a 16-cell silo forward of the bridge). However the Seawolf system was not installed prior to Indonesia’s 2013 agreement to acquire the ships.
With VL Seawolf no longer in production, MBDA is now proposing to equip the three vessels with the next-generation Sea Ceptor system. “As demonstrated by the highly successful Type 23 upgrade programme for the Royal Navy, Sea Ceptor is a proven and low-risk upgrade option for vessels configured for the previous Seawolf system such as the Bung Tomo corvettes,” an MBDA spokesperson said. “Also, the system’s design, including its active radar seeker and a two-way datalink, makes it virtually radar- and combat management system-agnostic.”
Capable of ranges of more than 25km, CAMM uses an active radar seeker (supported by mid-course guidance updates) to deliver an allweather engagement capability against multiple targets simultaneously. It also features novel ‘soft launch’ technology, where a gas-powered piston propels the missile away from the ship before thrusters orientate it in the required direction of flight. Once the low-speed/low-energy turnover is complete, the missile fires its main rocket motor.
“At only 100kg per missile and utilising cold vertical launch, Sea Ceptor offers substantial weight and volume savings over alternate systems,” MBDA told the Show Daily, “while providing shorter interception times and substantially increased maximum range.” (Source: IHS Jane’s)
07 Nov 18. Airshow China 2018: CASIC unveils WJ-700 armed reconnaissance UAV. China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) has unveiled a full-sized model of its new WJ-700 medium-/high-altitude long-endurance (MALE/HALE) armed reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at Airshow China 2018 in Zhuhai. Under development by CASIC’s UAV Technology Institute and marketed by Hiwing General Aviation Equipment, the commercial arm of CASIC’s Third Academy, which specialises in the in research and development (R&D) and production of cruise missiles, the turbojet-powered WJ-600 has a stated maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 3,500 kg and an endurance of up to 20 hours. Unlike the vehicle-launched, cruise missile-like form factor of the company’s earlier WJ-500, WJ-600, and WJ-600A/D MALE-class armed reconnaissance UAVs, the WJ-700 adopts a more conventional design with aerodynamically streamlined fuselage that supports a retractable nose wheel, a ventral sensor turret, low-mounted wings with forward-swept trailing edge on the inboard sections tapering to a constant chord outer section and mounting two hardpoints on each wing, and a V-shaped tail assembly with each surface comprising a fin and rudder and a dorsally mounted engine assembly that exhausts to the rear. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
06 Nov 18. US Navy considering re-introduction of Sub-Harpoon. The US Navy (USN) is looking at the re-introduction of the submarine-launched Boeing UGM-84D Sub-Harpoon anti-ship missile after a successful live fire demonstration at the ‘Rim of the Pacific’ (‘RIMPAC’) 2018 exercise.
The firing event, performed in July from the Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered attack submarine USS Olympia (SSN 717) as part of the ‘SINKEX’ phase of ‘RIMPAC’, was the US Navy’s (USN’s) first launch of a Sub-Harpoon missile in more than 20 years. The demonstration of this hitherto dormant capability was expedited by a team from the US Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division Newport. The USN removed the UGM-84 missile from its inventory during the 1990s. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
06 Nov 18. USAF to test unarmed Minuteman III ICBM from Vandenberg AFB. The US Air Force (USAF) is reportedly set to test an unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) from the Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB). To be carried out under an operational test between Tuesday midnight and early Wednesday, the launch was announced by the 30th Space Wing public affairs, which is a subordinate unit of the 14th Air Force of the USAF Space Command. The land-based nuclear deterrent will be launched after an unarmed Minuteman III ICBM was reportedly aborted by the USAF when the weapon demonstrated an ‘anomaly’ in flight in July. During the announcement of the launch, Vandenberg AFB officials were reported by NoozHawk as saying: “Operational test launches of the Minuteman III provide valuable data to planners and holistically test the system, procedures and airmen from the initial mission planning to the final weapons employment phases.
“These tests are not related to any real-world events.”
Every year, the USAF hosts four ICBM operational tests, each of which requires six to 12 months of planning before testing.
According to media reports, the first Minuteman III launch of 2018 was carried out in April from Vandenberg AFB. The missile landed at an undisclosed location in the Pacific Ocean, reported Gizmodo. In 1958, Boeing was selected as the prime contractor and original equipment manufacturer for the Minuteman ICBM. (Source: airforce-technology.com)
06 Nov 18. Ukraine conducts firing exercises of anti-aircraft weapon systems. The Ukrainian Air Force has taken part in special combat firing exercises using a wide range of anti-aircraft missile systems. The missile systems tested during the trials include C-300 weapons of a number of different modifications, namely ‘Buk’, ‘Kub’, ‘Tor’, and other systems. Tested for the first time in 19 years, the Russia-built S-300B1 air and missile defence system was reported to have successfully destroyed two airborne targets using its anti-aircraft missiles. In addition, the control tests of anti-aircraft missile complexes were also carried out during the exercises by the Ukrainian Air Force. The anti-aircraft missile complexes used for the tests had undergone in-depth upgrades at the domestic enterprises of the defence-industrial complex.
Ukraine’s National Security and Defense Council (NSDC) Secretary Oleksandr Turchynov has said that the trials have been conducted to identify different ways of upgrading and advancing the anti-aircraft missile systems.
The weapons will be used by the Ukrainian Armed Forces to help enhance their air defence capabilities.
Turchynov said: “The restoration of the air defence system is one of the most urgent problems of the security and defence sector of our state, and one of the top priorities set out by the NSDC of Ukraine.”
The military servicemen of the Ukrainian Armed Forces also demonstrated their skills in effectively destroying air targets at different distances.
Turchynov added: “The modernised anti-aircraft missile systems confirmed the declared tactical and technical characteristics.”
NSDC said that the exercises saw the participation of the anti-air defence infantry divisions and anti-air missile troops from the air force. (Source: airforce-technology.com)
06 Nov 18. AUS-US alliance strengthened by enhanced AWD capability. Australia’s first Hobart class Air Warfare Destroyer, HMAS Hobart, has successfully tested a key communications capability with US Navy counterparts. During training and testing near Hawaii, HMAS Hobart established secure data links with the US Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer USS John Finn and shared tracking and fire control data across the two ships.
Minister for Defence Christopher Pyne said the trials were a significant milestone in the testing and qualifying of Hobart’s combat and weapons systems, “Australia is the first country outside the United States with Cooperative Engagement Capability, and so this demonstration marked the first time this capability was proven between two navies.”
Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) is a real-time sensor netting system that enables high quality situational awareness and integrated fire control capability.
Commanding Officer HMAS Hobart, Captain John Stavridis, said the visit to the US had proven how closely the Australian and US navies can work together: “Connecting and sharing data with the US Navy like this is an important step in increasing our interoperability with them, especially during linked task group operations at sea.”
CEC is a system of hardware and software that allows the sharing of radar and identification, friend or foe sensor data on air targets among CEC equipped units. CEC’s two major system functions consist of a Cooperative Engagement Processor (CEP) for sensor networking and a Data Distribution System (DDS) for real-time communications among cooperating units (CU).
Put simply, CEC is a real-time ‘sensor-netting’ system that brings together radar data into a single integrated air picture from geographically dispersed ships, aircraft and ground-based units. This integrated picture improves task force effectiveness by enabling longer range, co-operative or layered engagements.
Raytheon Australia managing director Michael Ward said, “As the Cooperative Engagement Capability design agent, Raytheon has evolved this system over the past 30 years through its deployment across US ships, land-based test sites, E-2D aircraft, and US Marine Corps network systems.
“Raytheon Australia is also the combat systems integrator for the Air Warfare Destroyer program and we worked to incorporate the Cooperative Engagement Capability into the first destroyer, HMAS Hobart.” (Source: Defence Connect)
02 Nov 18. Minuteman III Replacement Program Moves Toward Next Phase (UPDATED). The current ground-based strategic deterrent system is reaching the end of its useful lifespan. First installed at Northern Tier Air Force bases in 1968, the LGM-30 Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles were intended to serve for a decade. Fifty years later, the Minuteman III remains in place as the land-based component of the nation’s strategic triad – complementing nuclear-weapons systems that are deployed on the Air Force’s strategic bombers and Navy’s ballistic-missile submarines. As the legacy platform ages, the Air Force and industry are moving forward with plans to replace it with a new ground-based strategic deterrent, or GBSD.
“Our existing systems are getting old. They need to be replaced,” said Ann Stefanek, an Air Force spokesperson.
Tom Karako, senior international security program fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said, “The Trump administration, like Obama before it, is going over everything — all of the options — and saying, ‘We really need to replace this, and also nuclear command and control.’”
Mark Gunzinger, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, said: “We are reaching the limit to our ability to continue to extend the service life of the Minuteman III.”
Last August, the Air Force selected two companies — Boeing and Northrop Grumman — as the two primary competitors to design and build the GBSD. Both firms are now entering the second of a three-year, technology maturation and risk reduction phase, funded at roughly the same amount of money for each. Northrop Grumman received $350m, while Boeing got $349m.
“We’re supposed to inform [the Air Force about] requirements going into the next phase — engineering, manufacturing and development,” said Patricia Dare, team lead for strategic deterrence systems at Boeing.
Northrop Grumman declined to be interviewed for this story.
The Air Force is expected to award a contract sometime around next August. Once complete, the new GBSD systems would be installed in existing silos and workspaces at three Air Force bases —
- E. Warren in Wyoming, Minot in North Dakota, and Malmstrom in Montana. Under terms of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with Russia, GBSD will be limited to 400 operational weapons. The system should be ready by the end of the next decade.
“One of the things we’re doing with this contract is keeping competition longer in the process than we may have done in the past,” Stefanek said. “When you have competition, typically it drives costs down.”
Stefanek said the service does not expect the budgetary process to change much in the meantime. The Air Force will come forward with a five-year proposal, she said, with budgetary projections based on cost estimates that emerge as the competition and down-selection processes progress.
The two companies are focusing on a complete replacement of the Minuteman III system. The much criticized floppy discs will go away. Other parts that are aging out are becoming irreplaceable. Sustainment costs would entail paying companies to manufacture parts and produce software that has long disappeared from the commercial market. Maintenance of archaic propulsion and guidance systems simply do not make sense anymore. Analyses have determined that it would be cheaper in the long run to replace the system entirely, officials have noted.
“Sustainment costs of the current system are expected to continue to rise as it gets older,” Stefanek said. “We’re going to have to put money in either to fix the existing system or put a new system in.”
Once the award is issued next year, the winning company will enter an engineering, manufacturing and development phase. The designers will move forward with the understanding that the ICBM they are building will be expected to last more than 50 years — just like its predecessor. It will need to incorporate a modular design, so that parts and systems can be upgraded during its lifespan as both technologies and threats change over time.
“Replacement of the entire weapon system includes the aerospace vehicle equipment — the missile — as well as the infrastructure supporting the weapon system,” said Dare. “It’s very important to get the new system in place with capabilities that will meet emerging threats. We want to make sure the warfighter has the best capabilities to execute the mission.”
For Gunzinger, the plan to replace Minuteman III with GBSD must be taken into consideration in the context of the need to enhance the entire nuclear triad. As an Air Force officer, he piloted B-52 bombers. After retiring from active duty, he served as deputy assistant defense secretary for force transformation resources under President George W. Bush.
“When I first joined SAC [the Strategic Air Command], there was a pretty robust missile force,” Gunzinger said.
The strategic arms limitation treaties between the United States and Soviet Union significantly reduced those numbers before, during and after the Cold War, Gunzinger said. Funding for strategic defense forces, which was as high as 11 percent of the budget at one point, eventually dropped to a low of 2.5 percent.
“That was enough to sustain our triad with incremental upgrades and life-extension programs, but not enough to replace the Minuteman III,” Gunzinger said.
“However, at the very same time DoD funding fell off, Russia never stopped. They’ve modernized all three legs and continue to do so. China has an acknowledged strategic triad as well,” he added.
Challenges would come with any decision to simply upgrade rather than replace Minuteman III, he noted.
“For example, take the engines. Those of two of the stages are made out of metal, and the third is a composite. The first two probably could be scrubbed out and the propellant could be re-poured, but there’s going to be some attrition. We wouldn’t know until we do that,” Gunzinger said.
The composite stage cannot be re-poured, he said.
Karako said it is significant that the GBSD acronym does not mention the word “missile.” The distinction implies the necessity to replace everything associated with Minuteman III — the host of ground-based systems that accompany the ICBM force, including command and control and ground stations.
“It’s not just holes and missiles. It’s lifecycle costs,” Karako said.
The winning company should, however, be cognizant of components in the old system that may merit adaptation into a current and useable form. For instance, he cites the fact that the computers in silos still require floppy disks drew incredulous responses when reported widely in the media a little more than two years ago. Floppy disks, Karako notes, cannot be easily hacked.
“There are other elements of analog, which from the scheme of things might be just fine or have qualities we don’t necessarily want to dispense with,” Karako said. “That said, there are a lot of operations and maintenance things that can be improved.”
New ground stations and equipment would be easier and cheaper to maintain, he said.
Karako is ready to counter any contentions that ICBMs have outlived their usefulness and are too expensive to maintain or replace.
“You have to emphasize the strategic context. Every time the U.S. looks at the possibility of getting rid of the ICBM, sure enough it tends to come back to the same conclusion,” Karako said. “Pound for pound, dollar for dollar, the ICBM leg is relatively inexpensive and provides a significant contribution to the overall nuclear deterrent provided by the triad.”
Bombers and submarines are effective, but are limited in number, Karako said. Ground-based ICBMs provide promptness, range and distribution. Their presence forces potential adversaries to double down in their own strategic deterrence efforts. The qualities and characteristics of a ground-based force, he believes, simply cannot be replaced. Even though arms-limitation treaties let potential adversaries know how many warheads the United States can bring to bear, the very presence of a large number of ground-based silos would require them to commit a significant chunk of their resources toward eliminating them.
“If somebody wants to decapitate our ICBM force, they’d have to go all in,” Karako said. “Russia would have to expand much of its nuclear force to hit the silos in the American West, and they still wouldn’t be able to hit our other [triad] legs.”
In due time, Karako said, the Air Force will award the contract and the modernization will take place.
“It’s the right thing to do. It’s not an artificial timeline that has to be met,” he said.
To fully understand what is at stake and what is required, Karako said that the focus should go beyond simply counting the number of warheads and look instead at the uniqueness of the protection the strategic triad provides.
“We don’t know what the future holds. We’re building systems that are going to be around for many decades to come,” Karako said. “It is important that we be cautious in terms of not dispensing with something today. The fact is, these particular qualities and contributions proved useful in the past. We should be careful about dispensing with this for what could be an uncertain future.” (Source: glstrade.com/National Defense)
02 Nov 18. Latvia receives Stinger air defence systems. Latvia has received man-portable Stinger air defence systems from Denmark to be used by the National Armed Forces (NAF). The Stinger missiles have been delivered under a bilateral agreement signed between the Latvian and Danish defence ministries in 2017. The systems, which include air defence missiles and their launch platforms, will protect combat units from aerial attacks by enemy air force. Latvia will collaborate with NATO and other allied forces on operational, maintenance and train the trainer courses to ensure smooth introduction of Stinger into the NAF. Maintenance of the systems will be contracted to the NATO Support and Procurement Agency. In August 2018, Latvian troops travelled to Finland to undergo Stinger operator training. While training, troops also developed a Stinger operator training module based on courses provided in Finland. The new module will be implemented by the newly created air force training centre of the NAF. Training simulators will be delivered in 2019. (Source: Shephard)
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