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14 Nov 19. Turkey’s multibillion-dollar Altay tank program faces delay. Turkey’s production program for its first new-generation main battle tank, the Altay, may be facing delays due to technological snags. The president’s office lists the Altay in the military’s inventory as part of a 2020 program list, but a top businessman involved in the program said that might not be a reality until the end of 2021.
“I am hoping that the Altay would be at the battlefield within 24 months,” Ethem Sancak, a senior shareholder in BMC, said in an October speech. BMC, which is a joint Turkish-Qatari venture, is charged with building the Altay.
A procurement official told Defense News that “there are major problems concerning critical parts, like the engine and transmission.”
Western countries, particularly Germany, have been reluctant to share such critical technology with Turkey over political concerns.
The Turkish government and BMC signed the multibillion-dollar Altay contract in November 2018. The contract involves the production of an initial batch of 250 units, life-cycle logistical support, and the establishment by the contractor of a tank systems technology center and its operation. As part of the contract, BMC will design, develop and produce a tank with an unmanned fire control unit.
The contract said the first Altay tank is to roll off the assembly line within 18 months, but that target is “more than over-optimistic,” according to an industry source, who spoke to Defense News on condition of anonymity.
The source added that it will likely be “at least a few years” instead.
The Altay program is broken into two phases: T1 and T2. T1 covers the first 250 units, and T2 involves the advanced version of the Altay.
Under the original program, Turkey planned to eventually produce 1,000 Altays, to be followed by an unmanned version of the tank. (Source: Defense News)
13 Nov 19. RBSL to manufacture Boxer vehicles for British Army as part of Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV) £2.3bn contract award.
Artec, a joint venture between two German companies – Rheinmetall and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann – has signed a £2.3bn contract to deliver over 500 Boxer vehicles to the British Army.
Rheinmetall BAE Systems Land (RBSL) will be one of the primary vehicle manufacturers in the UK undertaking the fabrication of the armoured vehicle structures together with the assembly, integration, and test of the complete vehicles at its Telford facility in the West Midlands.
The MIV contract award will sustain jobs at RBSL sites in and around Telford, Washington (UK), Bristol and Dorset. The company will also double its apprentice intake for 2019 and maintain this level over the next five years to grow RBSL’s Early Careers community.
The complete programme will also create and sustain a vibrant national supply chain, with substantial investment across the industrial base in training and capital equipment. The programme aims to source more than 60%, by value, of the vehicle content from UK suppliers, ensuring that the UK maintains sovereign manufacturing and engineering expertise to support the vehicles.
Peter Hardisty, Managing Director of RBSL, said: “Not only will the delivery of Boxer provide the British Army with a complete step-change in capability to meet their MIV requirement, it will also protect vital engineering and manufacturing skills as a sovereign capability to the UK. RBSL is incredibly proud to be a part of this milestone, alongside our partners in Artec. RBSL has a proud heritage of working with the British Army and remains the Design Authority for almost all of the UK’s in-service armoured vehicle fleet. This programme builds on that relationship and marks a new chapter in vehicle manufacture for the UK defence industry.”
The British Army will receive Boxer vehicles across four variants: Infantry Carrier, Specialist Carrier, Command, and Ambulance. Boxer has a service life of over 30 years and will play a major role in the British Army’s Strike concept, as well as ensuring compatibility with NATO allies.
In July 2019, Rheinmetall and BAE Systems launched a new, independent, UK-based joint venture for military vehicle design, manufacture and support – known as Rheinmetall BAE Systems Land (RBSL). Rheinmetall owns a 55% stake in the business, with BAE Systems retaining 45%.
The joint venture sustains a skilled workforce of more than 450 employees across the UK. This includes over 250 engineers based across sites in Telford (Shropshire), Washington (Tyne & Wear), Bovington (Dorset), and Bristol.
In addition to manufacturing the Boxer 8×8 for the British Army’s MIV programme, RBSL intends to play a major role in other strategic combat vehicle programmes such as the Challenger 2 Life Extension Project (LEP). This is in addition to providing continued support to the British Army’s in-service armoured vehicle fleets, for which RBSL is Design Authority for almost all.
13 Nov 19. Vietnam domestically upgrades T-54B tanks. Vietnam has been conducting an indigenous programme to upgrade old Russian-built T-54B tanks to T-54M3 configuration, with a focus on improving their firepower, mobility, protection and communications. The project involved three phases: the modernisation of a single tank by Israel Military Industries (IMI) in phase 1; Factory Z153 modernising three tanks in Vietnam under IMI’s supervision in phase 2; and the same factory modernising tanks independently using IMI kits as the final phase.
Z153 is a facility of the General Department of Engineering. The upgraded tanks feature an explosive reactive armour suite on their front and flanks.
It is unclear how many tanks have been upgraded, but reports from around 2012 suggested that Vietnam hoped to upgrade ten battalions’ worth of tanks (approximately 300 vehicles). The programme ran over multiple years too.
As for the T-54B’s main armament, the D-10T2S 100mm cannon received a thermal sleeve to minimise bending under heat stress and so thus enhance accuracy. The gun also received new types of ammunition such as multipurpose and kinetic energy rounds that have a greater range, plus four additional ammunition rounds are carried inside the vehicle.
Originally the tanks were supposed to receive replacement 105mm M68 guns, but this aspect was not implemented owing to the cost.
The fire control system received a viewfinder, uncooled thermal imager and laser rangefinder for daytime and night-time use. A new digital ballistic computer, weapon stabilisation system and meteorological sensor also considerably improve firing accuracy.
As for mobility, the engine’s power was boosted – with Shephard previously reporting that a German 1,000hp engine was installed – and a hydraulic steering, brake and transmission system fitted. Russian RF2050 digital multiband mobile transceivers replaced the T-54B’s old analogue radios.
The first T-54B tank models entered production in the former USSR in 1957, so they are extremely long in the tooth. Such tanks participated in the Vietnam War (a museum example is pictured above).
Earlier this year, in February, Vietnam also received the last of its 64 T-90S and T-90SK tanks from Russia under a 2016 contract estimated at $250m. These new vehicles significantly improve the armoured fleet of the Vietnam People’s Army. (Source: Shephard)
14 Nov 19. Armoured vehicle production grows in Thailand. In the past five years, the armoured vehicle industry in Thailand has leapt forward due to increasing needs for vehicles in the Thai armed forces for a variety of missions.
Unrest in Thailand’s three southern provinces has boiled up since 2005, including ambushes and improvised explosive devices (IED) that continuously cause loss of life and casualties to officials. The Royal Thai Army (RTA) deployed more than 100 Reva MRAPs from South Africa but has lost many to IED attacks. Other armoured vehicles in the inventory such as V-150s, Type 85s and M113s have all been in use for more than 30 years so they are outdated and in need of replacement.
Heavy industries with the most potential in Thailand are privately owned companies that have recognised these problems and started R&D using their own budgets.
An example is Chaiseri Metal & Rubber, which has been repairing wheeled and tracked military vehicles for decades. It initially built the First Win 4×4 multipurpose vehicle in 2012, with approval from the MoD. These protected vehicles allowed the RTA and Department of Special Investigation officials and equipment to enter operational areas with a V-shaped hull and armour plates that protect against 7.62mm ball ammunition.
The First Win was the first wheeled armoured vehicle built in Thailand. They cost approximately $500,000 each, which is cheap compared to other armoured vehicles in this class.
Deftech from Malaysia also bought a production licence to build First Wins in Malaysia. Today, Chaiseri is still evolving features on the First Win II, including the ability to mount an RWS and other versions for multi-mission purposes. The latest products are the amphibious First Win ATV 4×4 plus the very first tracked APC built in Thailand.
One other fast-growing private company is Panus Assembly, which has built an MRAP 4×4 vehicle named the Phantom 380-X1. This vehicle is suited to the situation in southern Thailand, and Thai marines have been using them in their area of responsibility.
Panus also designed and built the AFV-420P 4×4 armoured vehicle. Weighing 17t and equipped with an SARP turret from Aselsan, its RWS mounts a 12.7mm machine gun. It passed a field testing and evaluation phase in August. The AFV-420P costs $834,000 (excluding the weapon system).
However, the masterpiece from Panus is the latest R600 8×8 IFV. The R600A is an amphibious version for the marines. Each R600 costs $2m.
These domestically built armoured vehicles are not only cost effective but they also increase availability, sustainability and maintainability levels for the military.
These two companies are also looking to market them internationally in addition to just supplying them to Thailand’s military. (Source: Shephard)
13 Nov 19. Ghana Army shows new Otokar Cobra vehicles. The Ghanaian Army is now fielding Turkish-made Otokar Cobra and Cobra II armoured vehicles, according to footage of Exercise ‘Eagle Eye’ shown on local television on 9 November.
Two Cobra II and two Cobra appeared in the urban counter-terrorism exercise conducted by the army’s 64 th Infantry Regiment. They provided support to the troops as they stormed the head office of Ecobank Ghana. Each was equipped with a protected weapon station, with both Cobra IIs being armed with .50 FN M2 heavy machine guns, while the Cobras were fitted with 7.62 mm FN MAGs.
One of the Cobras was equipped with what appeared to be a mast-mounted electro-optical sensor fitted on the rear of its hull. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
13 Nov 19. Nigerian Army orders 28 Ezugwu armoured vehicles. The Nigerian Army has ordered 28 Ezugwu armoured vehicles from the Nigerian military’s Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria (DICON), it was announced on 12 November.
The Nigerian Army described the Ezugwu as a mine-resistant ambush protected vehicle (MRAP) and said it would be used for counter-terrorism/insurgency and other types of operations.
The agreement was signed by a representative for Chief of Army Staff (COAS) Lieutenant General Tukur Buratai and DICON Director General of DICON Major General Victor Ezugwu at the army’s headquarters in Abuja.
“We are gathered here today to actualise one of the lofty dreams of the army in reducing the challenges of having to rely on everything from outside Nigeria in terms of lethal equipment,” Lt Gen Buratai said in a statement read on his behalf. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
12 Nov 19. Equipment: Around 560m Euros for the Bundeswehr. The budget committee of the German Bundestag approved on Wednesday November 7 several defense ministry programs above the 25 m-euro threshold requiring Parliamentary approval, as well as an equity increase at the BwFuhrparkService GmbH limited liability company of up to 110m euros.
Digitization for the VJTF Very High Readiness Joint Task Force
The Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) aims to provide up to 2,200 complementary command kits. In two framework agreements, a maximum expenditure of around €115.7m is planned, of which initially services worth €87.9m will be awarded. This will procure display and processing equipment, server units and the necessary power supply.
Across all management levels, the measures are intended to integrate the combat, command and support vehicles and the deployable management facilities into a digital information and communication network. This basic digitization should also provide valuable insights for the digitization of the armed forces.
Supplies for Patriot
For around €292.5m, 50 missiles are to be procured in the new version of the Patriot PAC-3 MSE (Missile Segment Enhancement), including accessories. For this purpose, a corresponding agreement with the US government to be closed.
Operations of Weasel 1 extended
For about 73 m euros, 196 Wiesel 1 tracked vehicles are being prepared for further use. The small, lightly armored tracked vehicle is used as weapons carrier in the infantry among other things for the anti-tank, against lightly armored forces and as a reconnaissance vehicle. The Wiesel 1 are air-transportable and should be able to be used until at least 2030.
Partially militarized vehicles will be replaced
The equity of BwFuhrparkService GmbH is reinforced with an additional 110 m euros. The aim is to replace the outdated semi-militarized vehicles with modern commercially available vehicles with special military equipment (commercial vehicles with special military equipment). Optional equipment includes, for example, radio systems, camouflage lantern or rotating mount for the machine gun.
The current overall approach provides for 12,700 commercially available vehicles with special military vehicles. However, the additional funds can only be spent when corresponding deficit spending results in a reduction in the defense budget.
With the agreed financial submissions, and the strengthening of the equity capital of BwFuhrparkService GmbH, investments in state-of-the-art equipment of the Bundeswehr will be consistently continued. (Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com) (Source: defense-aerospace.com/German Ministry of Defence)
12 Nov 19. Eagle V 6×6 awaits production green light. General Dynamics European Land Systems – MOWAG said it has completed development of its latest Eagle 6×6 and is awaiting a production contract, with the Swiss army likely the first customer.
The Swiss army has said the Eagle 6×6 will meet its requirement for 100 reconnaissance vehicles, and GDELS-MOWAG confirmed that the Swiss army has received a pre-series Eagle 6×6 that has gone through user trials.
A contract is expected to be placed late in 2019, according to GDELS-MOWAG. These are to be fitted with a four-door protected cab, load area at the rear, retractable mast-mounted surveillance package, and a Kongsberg Protector remote weapon station armed with a stabilised .50 calibre M2 HB machine gun.
The 6×6 is the latest member of the Eagle family of vehicles and a further development of the Eagle 4×4. The additional steered third axle increases payload and interior volume while retaining the same manoeuvrability as the 4×4, the company told Jane’s. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
12 Nov 19. Companies ready robotic combat vehicle proposals for US Army. A handful of vendors are slated to deliver their light and medium robotic combat vehicle (RCV) proposals to the US Army in the coming days. Over the year, the service has been laying the groundwork for RCV-light (RCV-L) and RCV-medium (RCV-M) competitions and in recent weeks invited several companies to submit their proposals.
“We will then use these purpose-built vehicles to further test manned-unmanned team concept at the company level,” an army spokesperson told Jane’s in an 11 November email. “Based on what we learn from the soldier experiment in March and the company level experiment, the army will make a decision on how to proceed on integrating unmanned vehicles into ground combat operations.” (Source: IHS Jane’s)
13 Nov 19. US Marine Corps seeks unmanned breaching vehicle. The US Marine Corps is developing an unmanned system capable of clearing underwater threats that will replace the in-service Assault Breacher Vehicle, a modified version of the M1 Abrams tank.
The new unmanned system, known as the Crawling Remotely Operated Amphibious Breacher (CRAB), will be a submersible platform with a mine flail, tiller and rake designed to pave the way for amphibious forces.
Marine Corps Systems Command (MCSC) Captain Anthony Molnar said: “In theory, the CRAB system will breach through man-made obstacles in the surf zone.”
MCSC added that the vehicle will deploy from littoral utility craft and travel along the seafloor to de-mine and remove threats along the route from ship to shore.
The project will deliver an ‘expendable’ vehicle that keeps Marines out of harm’s way as they approach the shoreline. Molnar added the vehicle will “save lives and reduce costs for the Department of the Navy and the Marine Corps”.
The Marine Corps has submitted a proposal for the CRAB system to be designated as a ‘rapid innovation fund topic’; if successful a prototype unit will be produced over a two-year period.
The Marine Corps said the project falls in line with wider push for enhanced mine countermeasures and exploration of unmanned systems outlined in the ‘Commandant’s Planning Guidance’ document by Marine Corps General David Berger.
Berger wrote: “I encourage experimentation with lethal long-range unmanned systems capable of travelling 200 nautical miles, penetrating into the adversary enemy threat ring, and crossing the shoreline – causing the adversary to allocate resources to eliminate the threat, create dilemmas, and further create opportunities for fleet manoeuvre.”
He added: “We cannot wait to identify solutions to our mine countermeasure needs, and must make this a priority for our future force development efforts.”
CRAB will achieve both of these goals by providing an unmanned mine countermeasure platform.
MCSC’s Mobility and Counter Mobility program lead Michael Poe said: “The CRAB will support combat engineers and explosive ordnance disposal Marines by providing a remote or autonomous explosive and nonexplosive obstacle reduction capability within the very shallow water, surf zone and the beach.
“It will enable the Marine Corps to provide assured littoral mobility to the Naval Force in support of EABO [Expeditionary Advanced Base Operations].”
Molnar added: “The CRAB system is important because currently, the Naval Force can only breach in the surf zone with significant risk to mission or personnel.”
Currently, the Marine Corps does not operate a vehicle specifically designed to clear the near-shore surf zone of threats. Using the Assault Breacher Vehicle is effective, but not without risk. Molnar added: “This [the CRAB system] would alleviate that by having an inexpensive and expendable piece of equipment going through there.” (Source: naval-technology.com)
11 Nov 19. Indian MoD awards OFB USD2.8bn contract to licence-build 464 additional T-90S MBTs. India’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) has signed a INR200bn (USD2.8bn) contract with the state-owned Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) to licence-build 464 additional T-90S main battle tanks (MBTs) for the Indian Army (IA).
OFB spokesperson Uddipan Mukherjee told Jane’s on 11 November that under deal, which was signed five days earlier, the OFB’s Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) at Avadi, in southern India, would complete delivery of the MBTs within four to five years.
Industry sources said the order is part of a series of earlier contracts agreed upon with the HVF in 2006-07 to licence-build 1,000 T-90Ss – designated ‘Bhishma’ in Indian service – under a transfer of technology agreement signed with Russia.
This programme has faced recurring technological problems for several years, especially with regard to the MBT’s 125 mm smoothbore gun barrel, which has resulted in extended delays and cost overruns. However, IA sources told Jane’s that these glitches have now been resolved, with the latest order for 464 T-90S tanks meant to complete the previous agreement with HVF for the licensed production of 1,000 of these platforms.
The recently signed agreement is separate from the planned INR134.48bn acquisition of an equal number of T-90MS MBTs, all of which would be imported in kit form from Russian tank manufacturer Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) for assembly by the HVF.
India’s Committee on Security approved the T-90MS procurement in April, but no contract has yet to be signed. Industry sources said that the planned T-90MS acquisition also featured in discussions held in early November in Moscow during a meeting of the 9th India-Russia Inter-Governmental Commission on Military and Military Technical Cooperation (IRIGC-M&MTC), but pointed out that no deal has yet been reached. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
11 Nov 19. Burundi’s AMISOM contingent receives Springbuck, Fahd vehicles. The Burundian contingent serving with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) has taken delivery of 10 Springbuck Heavy Duty (HD) mine-resistance ambush-protected vehicles (MRAPs), the South African manufacturer DCD Protected Mobility confirmed to Jane’s. AMISOM announced on 6 November that the Burundians had received “at least 20 combat vehicles”. It did not identify the vehicles but released photographs of 10 Springbuck HDs and at least 10 Egyptian-made Fahd wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs) at its base around Mogadishu airport. Martie Bezuidenhout, DCD international business development manager, told Jane’s that Burundian operators have just completed on-site training on the Springbucks that were delivered in August. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
11 Nov 19. GA-EMS to develop on-demand hydrogen generation tech for US Army. General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems (GA-EMS) has received a two-year contract from the US Army to develop a prototype high-pressure hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system will be used by the army for refuelling hydrogen vehicles in the battlefield. The contract work involves design, fabrication, and demonstration of a prototype mobile platform for the on-demand generation of high-pressure hydrogen. GA-EMS will use its aluminium alloy hydrogen-producing technology to develop the system. The company has not disclosed the value of the contract. The proposed platform will produce hydrogen through a reaction between water and a dry aluminium alloy.
GA-EMS president Scott Forney said: “Vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells offer a more reliable, efficient, quiet, reduced thermal signature and environmentally sound option to support field operations.
“With a battlefield-based hydrogen fuelling station, the army can improve vehicle range, improve efficiency, and reduce dependency on oil and the logistical burden that is associated with it.
“Under this contract, we will provide a deployable, hydrogen generation platform with the capability to produce high-purity, high-pressure hydrogen for more efficient ground vehicle support.”
The hydrogen generation system will use local water resources.
The company stated that the on-demand generation of hydrogen will also remove the need to transport and store ‘large amounts of hydrogen to support longer-range power requirements’.
Last month, GA-EMS was awarded a contract by Dynetics Technical Solutions for the production of subassemblies for the US Army’s Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB) project. (Source: army-technology.com)
08 Nov 19. UK deploys up-armoured Warrior IFVs to Estonia. Up-armoured Alvis Warrior infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) have been deployed to Estonia as part of a rotation of the equipment for the UK-led NATO enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) battlegroup. The new vehicles were identified in video and still imagery released by the British Army showed equipment rotation, dubbed ‘Tractable’.
Until now the Warriors on duty in Estonia have been standard vehicles from the British Army training fleet with no theatre-specific enhancements. In the imagery the Warriors appeared to be fitted with plates along the length of their hulls to defeat high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warheads, which British Army sources said is designated Operational Equipment Standard 3 (OES3). This is an evolution of the theatre entry standard armoured packages developed for the Iraq and Afghan campaigns.
‘Tractable’, held between mid-October and 5 November, involved the first complete rotation of the battlegroup’s entire British Army armoured vehicle fleet since UK troops were deployed to Estonia in early 2017. This rotation also involved handing over the UK’s eFP commitment from the King’s Royal Hussars to the Queen’s Royal Hussars.
The rotation involved moving 200 vehicles to Estonia from the United Kingdom by train via the Channel Tunnel and by Ministry of Defence-contracted roll-on/roll-off ships to the German port of Emden for onward movement by low loader. Dozens of other vehicles, including Challenger 2 main battle tanks, were also moved by rail from the UK vehicle depot at Ayrshire Barracks in Mönchengladbach, Germany. Other vehicles moved included FV432 armoured personnel carriers, Combat Vehicles Reconnaissance (Tracked), Stormer High Velocity Missile (HVM) air defence vehicles, and AS90 self-propelled howitzers. (Source: IHS Jane’s)
08 Nov 19. Zetros Next Generation Introduced. At its in-house Defence Vehicle Experience event, Mercedes-Benz unveiled the second generation of the Zetros heavy-duty truck to users and procurers from the defence sector as well as system houses and body manufacturers. A good ten years after its market launch, the workhorse has been significantly overhauled and modernised for heavy off-road tasks and its performance has been improved.
The new generation Zetros is characterised by a drive train adapted to the increasing requirements for total weights and total train weights with more powerful engines up to a maximum of 375 kW and powerful torques of up to 2,400 Nm. On the outside, the new Zetros can be recognised by the newly designed distinctive radiator grille, which enables even more effective cooling thanks to optimised air flow.
Powerful engines, optional permanent all-wheel drive and planetary axles with differential locks, together with high ground clearance, guarantee exceptional mobility and durability.
The new Zetros uses assemblies from a comprehensive modular unit system, especially the Arocs. As a result, the Arocs is increasingly becoming the standard vehicle for (military) heavy-duty applications. The customer is spared technical risks because reliable and high-performance assemblies are used from the start of production.
The Zetros is one of the few hood vehicles on the military market. This design offers numerous advantages. The vehicle is approx. 50 cm lower than trucks with a comparable load capacity. The driver’s position behind the front axle reduces the vibration load for the driver, especially when driving off-road. The hood concept allows access to the engine compartment without tilting the cab. Equipment and personnel can remain in the cab when working on the engine.
In 2012, the German Armed Forces ordered a total of 110 Zetros with two axles and a protected cab − designed for a military payload of five tons − as part of the armament programme for Protected Transport Vehicles (GTF). The first vehicles have been in service in Afghanistan since 2013. Initial considerations for a second batch of 185 have begun. There is no concrete timetable yet, nor are there any planned financial resources. The Zetros could be given a chance in the event of procurement.
The Zetros is deployed internationally in Algeria, Bulgaria and Jordan. Algeria has a four-digit number in use and assembles some of the vehicles on site in its own production facilities. (Source: ESD Spotlight)
08 Nov 19. Tender for Tactical Airborne Utility Terrain Vehicle. On the European tender platform TED the German procurement agency BAAINBw published the start of the competition for a “Tactical Airborne Utility Terrain Vehicle” (LL-UTV). The procurement project includes a framework agreement with a term of seven years for the manufacture and delivery of a maximum of 148 high terrain and airborne unprotected, four-seater LL-UTV emergency vehicles, including an installation kit for the installation of an auxiliary device launcher and other on-board equipment, special tool kits, initial spare parts requirements and documentation for each vehicle. The minimum purchase in the 1st lot is 65 vehicles, the rest are an option. The active agent launcher is the Rheinmetall Defence ROSY system. (Source: ESD Spotlight)
Millbrook, based in Bedfordshire, UK, makes a significant contribution to the quality and performance of military vehicles worldwide. Its specialist expertise is focussed in two distinct areas: test programmes to help armed services and their suppliers ensure that their vehicles and systems work as the specification requires; and design and build work to upgrade new or existing vehicles, evaluate vehicle capability and investigate in-service failures. Complementing these is driver and service training and a hospitality business that allows customers to use selected areas of Millbrook’s remarkable facilities for demonstrations and exhibitions.