Sponsored by BATTLESPACE Jobboard
19 Jun 20. A new Global Technology Centre for GKN Aerospace has been completed and handed over at the Horizon-38 mixed use development site in Filton, north Bristol. The project has been brought forward by St Francis Group together with its development partner iSec. The state-of-the-art facility, which comprises of a bespoke facility extending to 110,000 sq ft including 40,000 sq ft of grade A office accommodation, has been pre-let to GKN Aerospace with funding provided by BP Pension Fund.
Buckingham Group Contracting was the contractor, completing construction and handing over despite the exceptional circumstances at this difficult time.
Gareth Williams, development director at St Francis Group, said: “When we were presented in 2017 with GKN Aerospace’s vision for a network of regional technology centres across the globe it was clear that this could be one of our more exciting development projects. It hasn’t let us down.
“We are delighted that Horizon-38 was selected as the location for this centre of excellence and for St Francis Group and iSec to have played a key role in the continued promotion of GKN Aerospace as a leading technology led global business.”
Jane Leedham, estates director at GKN Aerospace, added: “For such a high-profile project with a continually evolving brief, it was essential that we found a development partner with a delivery team that was both flexible and extremely capable. In return for a long-term commitment from GKN Aerospace, we were able to secure a bespoke research and development facility to rival all others.”
Horizon38 was acquired by a joint venture between St Francis Group and iSec late in 2015 and since then nearly 500,000 sq ft of new warehouse space has been built in addition to a new Village hotel and Selco trade counters.
A new Sytner Car Shop is under construction and a further pre-let just announced with Volvo Cars UK for a new flagship car dealership (Source: News Now/https://www.insidermedia.com/)
15 Jun 20. Germany’s F125 frigate Nordrhein-Westfalen enters service. Germany’s second F125 frigate, Nordrhein-Westfalen, was commissioned on 10 June, Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) and the Bundeswehr have announced. The frigate follows the first-in-class Baden-Württemberg, which entered service in June 2019. Under current plans, the two other ships of the class, Sachsen-Anhalt and Rheinland-Pfalz, will follow in 2021, TKMS said in a press release on 10 June. The shipyard said the ships are the most modern and powerful frigates ever built in Germany, with highly complex systems and some 28,000 sensors. A high level of automation has enabled the F125’s crew size to be nearly halved to 126 compared with 200 for the oldest F122 frigates. Crew size, however, can be increased to up to 190, according to TKMS. F125 frigates will employ the intensive use concept, remaining in an area of operations for up to two years, considerably reducing the number of long transit journeys, the shipyard explained.
The F125 is designed for national and NATO defence missions, international conflict prevention and crisis management, and intervention and stabilisation operations. It can engage sea, land, and aerial targets and embark anti-submarine helicopters. (Source: Jane’s)
15 Jun 20. USS Fitzgerald leaves for homeport following restoration works. The US Navy’s Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer, USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62), has left for its home port in San Diego following a series of repair and upgrade works.
The destroyer arrived at the Pascagoula shipyard in Mississippi in 2018 to undergo a two-year restoration and modernisation. The USS Fitzgerald was significantly damaged in a collision in 2017 that killed seven of its crew members.
Navy Regional Maintenance Center commander and Surface Ship Maintenance and Modernization director Rear Adm. Eric Ver Hage said: “Today the ‘Fighting Fitz’ is returning to the Pacific Fleet as one of our nation’s most capable warfighting platforms, marking a significant step in her return to warfighting readiness.
“The Fitzgerald sailors, our navy project teams and the men and women of Ingalls put forth a tremendous effort to restore the ship to fighting shape and did so on schedule.”
The scope of renovation works included Hull, Mechanical and Electrical (HM&E), Combat System (CS) and Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C5I) repairs to ensure full operations and functionality.
The ship’s radar and electronic warfare suite were replaced, while it also received HM&E, Combat System and C5I modernisation upgrades.
Concurrently, the destroyer’s crew also completed multiple training and certification events to hone their readiness to operate the vessel. (Source: naval-technology.com)
13 Jun 20. End of Fire on Nuclear Attack Submarine Perle. The fire aboard the nuclear attack submarine Perle was extinguished on June 13, 2020, at 1:50 am, after more than 14 hours of operations that mobilized a hundred firefighters and over 150 people to support them.
Thanks to the intervention coordinated by Vice-Admiral Isnard, Commander of the Mediterranean Maritime District, in connection with the Prefecture of the Var, no one was injured.
The fight against the fire saw the commitment of the firefighters of the Toulon Naval Base, of the Departmental Fire and Rescue Service (SDIS) of Var, of the Battalion of the Marseille Fire Brigade, and crew-members of other submarines as well as the staff of the nuclear attack submarine squadron (SNA) and the School of Submarine Navigation and Nuclear Powered Vessels (ENSM-BPN). The fire broke out in a drydock at Toulon naval base, where the SNA Perle has been on a technical maintenance shutdown since January 13, 2020.
There is no nuclear risk, as her nuclear fuel had been removed as part of the technical shutdown. No weapons (missiles, torpedoes, ammunition) or batteries were aboard the submarine when the fire broke out.
Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, welcomes the commitment of the forces to fight the fire, and she will travel today to Toulon accompanied by Admiral Christophe Prazuck, Chief of the Naval Staff.
On June 12, 2020, at 10:35 am, a fire broke out in the forward hull of the nuclear attack submarine Perle, while the boat was in drydock in the Missiessy zone of the naval base of Toulon.
(defense-aerospace.com EDITOR’S NOTE: The boat was evacuated as soon as the fire broke out, according to the Armed Forces Ministry, and no-one was injured during the incident. About 40 employees of Naval Group, the company which built and maintains French warships and submarines, were aboard, according to French media reports.
The fire was located in the lower part of the submarine’s forward hull and spread to the operations room, torpedo compartment, weapons magazine and part of the crew accommodations. It was finally extinguished by filling the entire forward section with foam. Specialized robots developed for firefighting operations on ships were deployed.
The fire did not reach the boat’s nuclear reactor compartment, according to a spokesman for the Maritime Prefect Mediterranean quoted by Agence France Presse.
There has so far been no indication of its cause.
Initial media reports indicate that the submarine may have been irreparably damaged, as a fire lasting 14 hours in an enclosed space may have caused its internal structure to melt.
Perle is the sixth and final Rubis-class nuclear attack submarine, and entered service in 1993. The Rubis class is due to be replaced by the Barracuda-class, whose lead boat, Suffren, is currently undergoing sea trials in the English Channel.
Perle was undergoing a heavy maintenance period to extend her service life for another decade, until her replacement by the sixth and final Barracuda-class submarine in 2029, but initial reports from Toulon suggest she may well be beyond repair.
If confirmed, this would deal a heavy blow to France’s submarine capabilities, and indirectly affect her submarine deterrent, as the primary mission of French SNAs is to escort her nuclear missile submarines as they transit to and from their home base in Brest.)
(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com) (Source: defense-aerospace.com/French Armed Forces Ministry)
17 Jun 20. Boeing Delivers First F/A-18 Block III Super Hornets to U.S. Navy for Flight Test. The first operational Block III jet will be delivered to the Navy in early 2021. Boeing [NYSE: BA] delivered the first two F/A-18 Block III Super Hornets to the U.S. Navy for flight testing. One jet is a single-seat E model and the other is a two-seat F model.
“The aircraft will be used for carrier suitability and integration testing of all Block III mission system components,” said Steve Wade, Boeing vice president, F/A-18 & E/A-18G programs. “These test jets will ensure crews have plenty of time to become comfortable with the new, next-generation systems before receiving operational aircraft.”
The Navy will use the aircraft to familiarize pilots with the advanced cockpit system’s new 10-inch-by-19-inch touchscreen display and test the capabilities delivered with the enhanced network capability. In addition to these enhancements, the Block III configuration adds capability upgrades that include longer range, reduced radar signature and an enhanced communication system. The fighter’s life also will be extended from 6,000 hours to 10,000 hours. Last year, Boeing was awarded a contract from the Navy for 78 Block III Super Hornets. Boeing and Navy test teams have also flown conformal fuel tank prototypes.
16 Jun 20. Boeing completes Qatar Apache build. Boeing has completed production of all 24 AH-64E Apache Guardian attack helicopters for Qatar, the manufacturer confirmed to Janes on 16 June. The milestone at the company’s Mesa facility in facility in Arizona came about 15 months after the first helicopter was officially handed over to the Qatar Emiri Air Force (QEAF) in March 2019. While assembly and flight testing is now complete, Boeing did not say if all of the helicopters have yet been shipped to Qatar.
As noted in separate approval and contract notifications, the QEAF’s weapons package for its Apaches includes Lockheed Martin AGM-114R Hellfire air-to-surface missiles, 70 mm Hydra rockets (the approval for the follow-on Apaches included BAE Systems Advanced Precision Kill Weapon Systems [APKWS] II kits to convert such rockets into laser-guided munitions), and FIM-92H Stinger air-to-air missiles.
Although not confirmed by Boeing, the timeline previously given to Janes for the conclusion of deliveries to Qatar suggests that these final helicopters might be the first to be fitted to the latest Version 6 configuration, with the company noting, “We have an international customer that is the first recipient of Version 6 and we are delivering helicopters [to that customer] now.” (Source: Jane’s)
16 Jun 20. Russia to receive two MI-8MTV5-1 helicopters. The Russian Aerospace Forces’ (VKS) is set to receive two MI-8MTV5-1 helicopters by the end of this month. The two modernised MI-8MTV5-1 helicopters are fitted with on-board defence systems. They will be handed over to the Russian military base in Kyrgyzstan.
Additionally, the helicopters’ cockpit will be equipped with lighting devices modified to allow the use of night-vision goggles.
This will help the VKS in conducting night flights at low and extremely low altitudes, including take-offs and landings on locations that are not designated.
Pilots of the MI-8 helicopter have already undergone theoretical and practical training. It involved combat training and retraining of army aviation crews in the Tver Region.
Once upgraded, the new helicopters will serve as replacements for the older models that are operational at the base.
The Russian military base in Kant operates SU-25 attack aircraft and MI-8 helicopters.
It acts as the Collective Rapid Reaction Force’s aviation element for the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).
The Mi-8MTV-5 is a military transport helicopter powered by VK-2500 turboshaft engines. It can be deployed for missions in hot climates and high altitudes.
Earlier this week, the crew members of the VKS’ Tu-160 supersonic strategic bomber and Il-78 long-range aircraft conducted night refuelling in the air.
The flight training was performed in the airspace over the Volga region in Russia. (Source: airforce-technology.com)
PLANT CLOSURES, JOB LOSSES AND STRIKES
21 Jun 20. Union Votes Strike At Bath Iron Works; Destroyer Fleet At Risk. As delays in getting ships delivered on time worsen, Navy acquisition chief James Geurts said, “It is critical for our Navy that we get ships, we get them on the schedule we contract for them, and that we have high confidence in our shipbuilders to deliver.”
Some 4,300 shipyard workers at a Maine shipyard voted Sunday to strike, stopping work on six new Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, and the last of three Zumwalt destroyers.
Members of the Machinists’ Union Local S6 will put down their tools at midnight Sunday, after 87 percent of them voted to reject a three-year contract from General Dynamics Bath Iron Works to keep the shipyard running.
The union members rejected what the company called its “last, best, and final” offer last week. The company’s proposal would have given the production workers a yearly 3 percent raise, but the sticking point for the union was the hiring of subcontractors, and a proposal to change preferences for shifts and locations that the union saw as an assault on seniority. But the Local S6 union posted on their Website: “We are officially on strike. Stand strong. United we’re one. Divided we’re done!”
The six destroyers and Zumwalt in the docks at Bath are already six months behind schedule, according to BIW President Dirk Lesko. It’s hard to estimate the strike’s effects since we don’t know how long it will last.
The work stoppage comes as another blow to General Dynamics. In April, the company lost the bid for the $795 million contract to build the first 10 of a new class of guided missile frigates when Wisconsin-based Fincantieri Marinette Marine won. The company also lost out on a hard-fought effort to build the Coast Guard’s Offshore Patrol Cutters in 2016.
General Dynamics issued a statement on its website recognizing the decision: “We obviously are disappointed by this result, but are prepared should a strike occur.”
Speaking with reporters late last week, Navy acquisition chief James Geurts was asked about the potential for the strike to put the seven ships even further behind schedule. He steered clear of getting involved in the talks between the two sides, but made clear the Navy expects to get its ships delivered on time — something that looks less likely the longer the strike drags on.
“It is critical for our Navy that we get ships, we get them on the schedule we contract for them, and that we have high confidence in our shipbuilders to deliver,” Geurts said. The Navy is investing in the shipyard “to help them continue to modernize and bring down the cost, and deliver ships just like we’re doing with all our other shipyards.”
The strike comes as the Navy is working on plans to increase the number of manned and unmanned ships it has, as China steams ahead with a massive shipbuilding effort. In an unreleased document obtained by Breaking D last week, the Marine Corps expressed concern that in the event of any conflict, China could replace its losses at sea faster than the United States could.
Readiness concerns have also led the Navy to take the unprecedented step of calling up over 1,600 Reservists earlier this month to fill labor shortages at shipyards repairing aircraft carriers and submarines in a desperate effort to get them back out to sea as soon as possible.
Navy spokesman Capt. Danny Hernandez said in an emailed statement Sunday that “the work performed by our industry partners is critical to our Fleet. To avoid disruptions, the Navy is hopeful leaders at General Dynamics’ Bath Iron Works and the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers come to agreement on the current contract negotiations soon.”
Lesko told me last month that the company had fallen behind schedule in part due to COVID-related absences and changed work schedules, but the main problem was the retirement of so many experienced tradesmen over the past several years.
“Last year we hired 1,800 people, which was the most hired for 30 years I think,” Lesko said. “We probably would have hired 500 or 600 more people last year if we could have.”
Those new employees are being trained up to replace the retirees, slowing some projects down. “Those people are leaving in groups, requiring us to replace them in big groups,” Lesko said. (Source: Breaking Defense.com)
18 Jun 20. Kathryn Wheelbarger, a primary contact in the Pentagon for allies and partners abroad, has resigned six days after having her name pulled for the department’s No. 2 civilian intelligence role.
She becomes the second Pentagon official to resign this week under similar circumstances — with both having had nominations for new jobs reportedly scuttled by White House staffers over loyalty concerns to President Donald Trump.
Hours after the initial report by Reuters, Secretary of Defense Mark Esper released a statement praising Wheelbarger for her “wealth of experience and the utmost professionalism.” (Source: Defense News)
16 Jun 20. Statement From Secretary of Defense Dr. Mark T. Esper on the Resignation of DOD Comptroller Elaine McCusker.
“Today Elaine McCusker submitted her resignation as Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) effective Friday June 26, 2020. Since joining the Department of Defense Elaine has worked tirelessly to ensure that our budgeting and audit processes give full value to the taxpayer while meeting the enormous security needs of our nation as well as the men and women who serve it. I am grateful for her dedication to public service and the contributions that she has made to the Department and wish her the very best in her future endeavors.” (Source: US DoD)
MILITARY AND GOVERNMENT
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. Michael D. Bernacchi Jr. will be assigned as director, plans and policy, J5, U.S. Space Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. Bernacchi previously served as commander, Submarine Group Ten, Kings Bay, Georgia.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. Yvette M. Davids will be assigned as chief of staff, U.S. Southern Command, Doral, Florida. Davids previously served as commander, Carrier Strike Group Eleven, Everett, Washington.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. Michael P. Holland will be assigned as chief of staff, U.S. Northern Command/North American Aerospace Defense Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. Holland is currently serving as director, programming division, N80, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. William W. Wheeler III will be assigned as chief of staff, U.S. Strategic Command, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. Wheeler is currently serving as director, plans and policy, J5, U.S. Cyber Command, Fort Meade, Maryland.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Anne M. Swap, selected for promotion to rear admiral, will be assigned as director, National Capital Medical Directorate, Defense Health Agency, Washington, D.C. Swap is currently serving as commander, Naval Medical Forces Atlantic, Portsmouth, Virginia.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Joseph A. DiGuardo Jr. will be assigned as commander, Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), Virginia Beach, Virginia, with additional duties as commander, NECC Pacific. DiGuardo is currently serving as deputy director of plans and policy for countering weapons of mass destruction, U.S. Special Operations Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Kevin M. Jones will be assigned as director, Logistics Directorate, J-4, U.S. Africa Command, Stuttgart, Germany. Jones is currently serving as commander, Defense Logistics Agency Distribution, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Pamela C. Miller will be assigned as fleet surgeon, U.S. Pacific Fleet; and command surgeon, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, Camp H. M. Smith, Hawaii. Miller is currently serving as reserve fleet surgeon, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, Norfolk, Virginia.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Douglas C. Verissimo is currently serving as commander, Carrier Strike Group Nine, San Diego, California. Verissimo previously served as deputy director for operations, National Joint Operations Intelligence Center, Operations Team Two, J3, Joint Staff, Washington, D.C.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Michael J. Vernazza will be assigned as commander, Naval Information Warfighting Development Center, Norfolk, Virginia. Vernazza is currently serving as Deputy Commander, Tenth Fleet, Fort Meade, Maryland.
16 Jun 20. Rear Adm. (lower half) Darin K. Via will be assigned as commander, Naval Medical Forces Atlantic, Portsmouth, Virginia. Via is currently serving as director, medical systems integration and combat survivability, N44, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C.
16 Jun 20. USN Rear Adm. William J. Galinis for appointment to the rank of vice admiral, and assignment as commander, Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C. Galinis previously served as program executive officer for ships, Washington, D.C.
16 Jun 20. USN Rear Adm. Samuel J. Paparo Jr. for appointment to the rank of vice admiral, and assignment as commander, U.S. Naval Forces, U.S. Central Command; commander, U.S. Fifth Fleet; and commander, Combined Maritime Forces, Manama, Bahrain. Paparo is currently serving as director of operations, J3, U.S. Central Command, Tampa, Florida.
16 Jun 20. USN Rear Adm. Jeffrey E. Trussler for appointment to the rank of vice admiral, and assignment as deputy chief of naval operations for information warfare, N2/N6, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; and director of naval intelligence, Washington, D.C. Trussler previously served as director, future plans, N55, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C.
18 Jun 20. Boeing [NYSE: BA] today named Michael D’Ambrose as executive vice president of Human Resources, effective July 6. He will succeed Wendy Livingston, who has served in an interim capacity since April. In this role, D’Ambrose will be responsible for the company’s leadership and learning, talent planning, employee and labor relations, total rewards, and diversity and inclusion initiatives. He will report to Boeing President and CEO David Calhoun, serve on the company’s Executive Council and be based in Chicago.
15 Jun 20. John Slattery is leaving Embraer with immediate effect and will become President and CEO of U.S. conglomerate GE’s Aviation Division on Sept. 1. It was largely expected that Slattery would quit Embraer once Boeing dumped Embraer to form the Joint Venture. (Source: Aerospace Daily & Defense Report)
15 Jun 20. Jim Taiclet Becomes New Lockheed Martin President And CEO. Marillyn A. Hewson Becomes Executive Chairman. In a planned leadership transition, experienced chief executive, Gulf War veteran and pilot James D. Taiclet, 60, today became president and CEO of Lockheed Martin Corporation [NYSE: LMT]. He succeeds Marillyn A. Hewson, 66, who has served as chairman, president and CEO since 2014 and president and CEO since 2013. Taiclet will continue to serve as a member of the corporation’s board, which he joined in 2018. Hewson will become executive chairman of the board and provide ongoing support for the leadership transition.
“As a former military pilot, I understand the mission of this great corporation to provide global security and innovative solutions for the brave men and women who protect our freedom,” Taiclet said. “I come into this role at a time when our nation and its allies have been tested globally by new and emerging threats. Now more than ever, it’s critical we continue to deliver the best systems and equipment in the world. I’m honored to succeed Marillyn, who is rightfully one of the most respected CEOs in America, and to lead a workforce that is inventing and advancing the technology and security of our future.”
“This disciplined leadership transition reflects deliberate and thorough succession planning and is being implemented strategically at a time when Lockheed Martin is financially strong and positioned well for the future,” Hewson said. “I have every confidence Jim and his executive leadership team will continue driving sustained success through sound business strategy, strong customer relationships and deep mission focus.”
About Jim Taiclet
Taiclet’s tenure as CEO of American Tower Corporation started in 2003 and he became chairman, president and CEO in 2004. Since then, American Tower grew significantly and increased its market capitalization from approximately $2bn to more than $100bn. Taiclet guided the company’s transformation from a primarily U.S. business to a global player in its industry and he is widely regarded as one of America’s most successful CEOs.
Prior to joining American Tower in 2001, Taiclet was president of Honeywell Aerospace Services, a unit of Honeywell International, and prior to that was vice president, Engine Services at Pratt & Whitney. He was also previously a consultant at McKinsey & Company, specializing in telecommunications and aerospace strategy and operations.
Taiclet began his career as a U.S. Air Force officer and pilot and served a tour of duty in the Gulf War. He holds a master’s degree in public affairs from Princeton University, where he was awarded a fellowship at the Woodrow Wilson School, and is a distinguished graduate of the United States Air Force Academy with degrees in engineering and international relations.
REST OF THE WORLD APPOINTMENTS
16 Jun 20. CAE’s defence and security group president Todd Probert is departing the Quebec-based training and simulation firm after five months to take a job elsewhere, and CAE’s Heidi Wood will serve in the interim.
Todd Probert, a former Raytheon executive, will step down June 26 to pursue an unspecified job opportunity within the U.S. national security community, CAE announced Tuesday. The move comes as the coronavirus pandemic has blunted projections for a strong year in CAE’s defense segment.
Wood, who recently joined CAE as executive vice president for business development and growth initiatives, will act as interim leader while the firm searches for Probert’s replacement, CAE President and CEO Marc Parent said in a statement. (Source: Defense News)
15 Jun 20. Embraer started today its restructuring process with the reintegration of the commercial aviation business and announced Arjan Meijer as the new President and CEO of Embraer Commercial Aviation, succeeding John Slattery. Arjan will report directly to Embraer President and CEO Francisco Gomes Neto, and the move will be effective immediately. (Source: Aerospace Daily & Defense Report)
18 Jun 20. Leidos Australia has announced the permanent appointment of its new chief executive, Paul Chase, effective 15 June after acting in the role for the past three months. Chase has been with the organisation for 22 years and has held various program management positions, led multiple new business pursuits and is highly regarded by Australian stakeholders and customers.
“I’m honoured to be named chief executive for Leidos Australia. With the team, we will continue to grow our Australian business by focusing on helping our customers to deliver their mission,” Chase said.
In addition to his extensive work experience, Chase has a bachelor degree in engineering (electronics), a master’s degree in software engineering and a master’s degree in law.
His appointment to this role is confirmation of the active investment that Leidos makes in developing and growing its own talent into key roles in the organisation. (Source: Defence Connect)
BATTLESPACE Publications has launched a jobs board that incorporates a multi award winning talent attraction and recruitment management system that goes well beyond any traditional jobs board management system.
This powerful platform utilises the latest parsing, AI and machine learning software which sits behind a simple and easy to use jobs board and intuitive dashboard that delivers real tangible results.
The System not only allows you to post on to the Battlespace Jobs board but also provides access to over 5000 other jobs board platforms, many of which are free.
The candidate management system automatically grades applications and there are numerous best of breed screening and filtering tools including online interviewing technology.
Companies can register and post jobs immediately free of charge by visiting www.battle-technology.com and selecting the Jobs board option. If you need any help using the job board please contact our partner Customer support team on freephone 0800 634 1818.
You have a free 3 Month Trial Period on Application.