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06 Jan 22. Hanwha Systems and LIG Nex1 strengthens comms with ANASIS-II military satellite. The South Korean Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) has awarded contracts to homegrown defence primes Hanwha Systems and LIG Nex1 to supply ground-based communication terminals linked to the ANASIS-II (Army Navy Air Force Satellite Information System-II) military communications satellite.
The two companies are expected to manufacture eight different ground-fixed and vehicle-based communication devices that will operate jointly with ANASIS-II – which launched into space in July 2020 – under two separate contracts, which are valued at US$742 million and will run through 2025.
DAPA noted that the ground-based terminals will enhance the ANASIS-II system while boosting the development of South Korea’s indigenous space industry with 96% local content. The agency said 48 local companies specialising in antenna devices, modems, and software for signal reception and transmission are contributing to the programme.
The mass production of ground-based terminals, which was first approved by DAPA in April 2021, will see South Korea fielding a military communications network that provides “significantly improved performance” in transmission capacity and can maintain secure and continuous communications despite enemy-jamming attacks.
Hanwha Systems earlier said in September 2021 that it will establish a network control system as well as manufacture portable ground terminals compatible with the ANASIS-II satellite, while LIG Nex1 disclosed that it will manufacture new terminals that will provide increased datalink transmission performance as well as security.
DAPA earlier announced that the government plans to invest US$13.5 billion over 10 years to boost the development of indigenous defence-related space technologies and reduce the country’s reliance on US reconnaissance assets.
At that time, the South Korean Ministry of National Defense (MND) also announced that the country will indigenously develop and operate a new Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) from Naro Space Center in Goheung County from 2024.
The facility is operated by the state-run Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and is located around 485 km from Seoul. The announcement comes after the MND’s Agency of Defense Development (ADD) revealed that it had carried out successful combustion trials of a new solid-propellant rocket engine. The planned SLV will be used to launch reconnaissance micro-satellites into low Earth orbit to provide early warning against “anomalies in the detection area” – understood to be missile launches from North Korea and other significant military activity. (Source: AMR)
06 Jan 22. Militarisation of space drives record government investment. Governments worldwide spent $123bn on space programs in 2021, an increase of 8 per cent compared to the previous year. Market intelligence firm Euroconsult, which analysed the data, said the increase was being driven by ambitious exploration programs and new military rivalries.
It predicted total expenditure could exceed a trillion by the end of the decade.
“Civilian space budgets, totalling $74bn in 2021, continue to receive more funding than defense space programs, at 58 per cent of total spending, though the share going to defense, $54bn in 2021, is increasing,” said Euroconsult.
“Geopolitical tensions, increasing rivalry between leading space powers and the value of space as the ultimate high ground drive the militarisation of space trend, with leaders increasing their investments in defense space assets and technologies.”
The data shows the United States spent $75bn on its government space programs, compared to $450m in Australia, $14.3bn in China, $3.6bn in the EU, $5bn in Russia and $5.9bn in Japan.
Australia ranks just 18th among the G20 countries for government investment in space as a percentage of GDP, a comparable amount to Turkey and far lower than the US, UK or Canada.
The news comes after Space Connect reported last month how a standing committee set up to advise on the development of Australia’s space industry recommended turning the Space Agency into an independent body and increasing its funding.
MPs argued Australia must do more to create sovereign assets after COVID exposed our “reliance on other countries” for vital services.
Chair of the committee, Pat Conaghan, concluded Australia must “position itself to capitalise” on the growing space sector. (Source: Space Connect)
06 Jan 22. The US Space Force has performed exercises to test the resilience of US spacecraft including Department of Defence satellites tasked with ballistic missile detection and tracking. Reports noted that the exercises included kinetic and electronic attacks against US satellites. This probably included evaluating jamming effects on satellite air-to-ground/ground-to-air links and crosslinks. The exercises were performed using computer simulations. Known as ‘Space Flag’ the exercise was the 13th such event for the US Space Force. It included representatives from Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Space Flag occurred in the wake of Russia’s destruction of a Kosmos-1408 SIGINT satellite on 15th November. The controversial test used an Almaz-Antey A-235 PL-19 Nudol surface-to-air missile. (Source: Armada)
05 Jan 22. The New $1m-a-Year Research Grants AFRL Hopes Will Speed Up Space Tech. Proposals combining both basic and applied university research, with manufacturers looped in, could get technology to the Space Force faster. The theory is one that the Air Force Research Laboratory is testing in the pilot year of its Space University Research Initiative.
The lab’s leaders hope the SURI pilot program will also help it modernize how it manages space-related science.
AFRL awarded two teams grants worth $1m a year for three to five years. A team led by the University of Buffalo will figure out ways to inspect and repair satellites and do some on-orbit manufacturing. Its counterpart led by Carnegie Mellon University will work on algorithms for tracking manmade space objects.
AFRL commander Maj. Gen. Heather L. Pringle stressed that AFRL is “one lab” serving “two services” in a press call in December announcing SURI. She pointed out that “many technologies are domain-agnostic.”
Research performed under SURI theoretically “can go directly to industry for transition,” said AFRL’s Andrew Williams. “We can take it into flight experimentation with our advanced technology funding line because we’ve already integrated the university researchers with the AFRL researchers to accelerate that transition.”
On-Orbit Servicing and Manufacturing
Williams’ role of deputy technology executive officer for space, science, and technology is also new. Pringle described the role as bringing together space research “from all the nooks and crannies across the research lab.” For SURI, he’ll take part in the research landed by the proposal “Breaking the ‘Launch Once, Use Once’ Paradigm.”
Entered by Carnegie Mellon’s Howard Choset, the proposal draws on the expertise of fellow team members from Texas A&M University, the University of New Mexico, and Northrop Grumman. Williams said the proposed research includes aspects of:
- Intelligent on-orbit inspection—in other words, “How can we use machine vision to … detect anomalies,” Williams said.
- Dexterous on-orbit maintenance, meaning robots for repairing or upgrading vehicles.
- Agile on-orbit manufacturing such as “using technologies like some 3-D printing concepts in order to add additional capabilities on orbit.”
Space Domain Awareness
The topic of space domain awareness is front of mind for the Space Force, especially as it expands to cislunar space around the moon.
With USSF being “responsible for tracking all of the manmade objects in space and providing information to all satellite operators on potential collisions … this responsibility becomes more complex,” said Shery L. Welsh, director of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, which is part of AFRL.
Led by the University of Buffalo’s John L. Crassidis, the SURI proposal, “Space Object Understanding and Reconnaissance of Complex Events,” or SOURCE, includes team members from Pennsylvania State University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Purdue University.
The team is “really pushing state-of-the art techniques for analyzing sensor data,” Welsh said. She said the team will:
- Create “sophisticated methods to detect the thousands of objects, confidently identify them, and predict their trajectories and understand their correct characteristics and activities.”
- Develop “a scalable framework that has the ability to fuse data from many different disparate sources with orbital dynamic models.”
- Conduct “studies to significantly improve … dynamic modeling capability beyond geosynchronous orbit … while incorporating tools from astrodynamics and state-of-the-art machine learning techniques as well.”
- Investigate “new tracking approaches, which we desperately need, that significantly advance uncertainty quantification methods to enable accurate forecasting of space objects—as well as the tracking of maneuvering satellites.” (Source: Defense News Early Bird/https://www.airforcemag.com/)
05 Jan 22. Boeing Australia, UniSA and RDA team up to design space education program. The Future U program is currently piloting in two states, demonstrating future career pathways in the space industry for years 7-10 students.
Boeing Australia, University of South Australia and Regional Development Australia recently partnered to design and deliver a new training package for years 7-10 students, demonstrating potential pathways in Australia’s growing space industry.
The package, titled the Future U program, has been rolled out in Queensland’s Aviation High School and NSW’s Catherine McAuley Catholic College where Boeing employees collaborated with teachers to instruct the lessons.
“We’ve learned from more than 17 years supporting the Aerospace Gateway Schools program that the best way to optimise children’s learning is to make it easily accessible for teachers to apply in their classroom,” Sandra James, senior manager of University Relations and STEM, said.
“By tailoring our content into the national curriculum, we’re hoping to expose students early to key skills and knowledge that capture the hearts and minds of future space leaders and innovators and grow our talent pipeline.”
Throughout the lessons, students were given the opportunity to create and trial spacecraft, examine how welding is employed in the space industry and work in a lunar gateway base.
“Providing the tools to engage students in real-life practical scenarios beyond what they see in movies or TV, has made the possibility of a career in the space industry very real for them,” said Luke Kelleher, leader of learning – Science and Mathematics at Catherine McAuley Catholic College.
Already, 180 students trialled the piloted scheme as part of Regional Development Australia’s ME program. Under the ME program, the 180 year 7 students from the Hunter Region in NSW were taught about pathways in Australia’s defence industry.
“The Future U lesson plans also expand on scientific knowledge to include communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity which are equally essential to working in groundbreaking teams,” said Rick Evans, manager of Skilled Workforce Programs for RDA Hunter.
“Future U is an ideal vehicle to attract talent to Australia’s Department of Defence, defence industries and to build our space sovereignty.”
(Source: Defence Connect)
05 Jan 22. RoK to mass-produce ground-based communication terminals for ANASIS-II. South Koreas Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) announced on 27 December that it has signed contracts with Hanwha Systems and LIG Nex1 to mass produce ground-based communication terminals linked to the ANASIS-II, the countrys first dedicated military communications satellite.
The project, valued KRW888.5bn (USD742m) between 2021 and 2025, will see the two South Korean companies manufacture eight different ground-fixed and vehicle-based communication devices that will operate jointly with the ANASIS-II satellite system, which launched into space in July 2020.
The mass production of ground-based terminals will enhance defence capabilities and core performance of the ANASIS-II system, and support the development of South Korea’s space defence industry, with a 96% localisation rate already achieved, a DAPA spokesperson said. Specifically, 48 local companies in the field of modems, antenna devices and software for signal reception and transmission are contributing to this project, the agency added. (Source: Janes)
16 Dec 21. MDA’s + ICEYE’s CHORUS Agreement For SAR EO Support. MDA Ltd. (TSX:MDA) and ICEYE have entered into an agreement for ICEYE to supply an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spacecraft for CHORUS, MDA’s next generation commercial Earth Observation (EO) mission.
A collaborative multi-sensor constellation, CHORUS brings together diverse and unique imagery and data sources, changing how and when we see the world by providing a new level of real-time insight and innovative EO services.
Building on the RADARSAT program, CHORUS will include C- and X-band SAR satellites operating in a mid-inclination orbit with day or night imaging in all weather conditions. An essential element of the CHORUS constellation, the X-band spacecraft will fly in the same mid-inclination orbit with the identical ground track as the MDA-built C-band SAR satellite.
This revolutionary approach will provide the most extensive radar imaging capacity available on the market, with higher imaging performance, higher frequency imaging, variable imaging times, more imaging time per orbit, fast tasking, faster delivery timelines and Near Real-Time (NRT) data exploitation aided by ML / AI.
Adding a trailing high-resolution X-band SAR satellite to a powerful C-band SAR satellite will also unlock new use cases, including tipping and cueing techniques that allow MDA’s leading broad area sensor to monitor an area of interest (the “tip”) and to zoom in on objects of interest (the “cue”) using the trailing high resolution sensor.
Combining C- and X-band capabilities, CHORUS will significantly enhance existing services and enable new applications not feasible with existing SAR satellites. Features include:
- Designed with a focus on maritime surveillance applications, CHORUS will have dedicated vessel detection imaging modes with an imaging capacity to collect an area equal to 40% of the global Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) – or over 55 million square kilometers – every day using the 25m Vessel Detection Mode.
- CHORUS will enable a new level of precision all-weather satellite monitoring of icebergs in the North Atlantic. This is currently achieved by crewed aircraft observations supplemented with Earth Observation satellite imagery.
- The mission will enable tipping and cueing operations between wide area surveillance to high-resolution point target monitoring. This unique capability is especially useful, when fused with space-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, for use cases such as broad area ship detection and vessel classification to support dark vessel detection activities.
- The X-band satellite will operate in a trailing orbit which will enhance image correlation, allowing for more effective image fusion, measurements, exploitation and event or object characterization.
The companies also announced they have signed a separate distribution agreement that will allow MDA to sell ICEYE’s existing and future X-band data to select RADARSAT-2 customers, as well as to develop value-added products to immediately take advantage of advanced information data integration and analytics from these two types of SAR sensors.
MDA owns and operates RADARSAT-2, one of the world’s most capable commercial broad-area imaging satellites. With over 20 imaging modes, and established customers in over 45 countries, RADARSAT-2 delivers operationally reliable products and services supporting a number of use cases, including marine surveillance, ice monitoring, disaster management, environmental monitoring, resource management and mapping.
ICEYE operates the world’s largest commercial constellation of SAR satellites and has launched 14 spacecraft to date. The company is planning to further expand its constellation with at least four additional satellites by mid-2022, with the objective of reaching an average access time of three hours anywhere on the globe.(Source: Satnews)
16 Dec 21. mu Space’s Reveal On Tech Day A $4m Ultra Fast Internet Satellite. Aerospace manufacturer and satellite internet service provider mu Space Corp, recently announced plans to manufacture up to 200 of its revolutionary MU-B200 satellites that are capable of providing ultra-fast 5Gbps internet speeds to remote locations. With a price tag of US$4m, less than half that of similar technology currently on the market, the MU-B200 is part of mu Space Corps’ plans for rapid expansion in 2022. mu Space Corp is an aerospace manufacturer and satellite internet service provider redefining the aerospace landscape in Southeast Asia.
The organization recently welcomed invited members of the press to the Tech Day Event at its state-of-the-art facility in Bangkok, Factory 1. The event consisted of futuristic space panels, showcases, tech discussions, a tour of the factory and a first-hand experience within the walls of the leading space organization. On top of inviting the press to witness mu Space’s plan for the rocket-powered industry, the event enabled the organization to showcase its products.
Headlining the event was the announcement of mu Space’s latest satellite. The MU-B200 is a 200kg customizable satellite that focuses on delivering high power and accelerates performance. It comes equipped with a 1.2 kW high power system, which is further customizable to the client’s needs. The price of the MU-B200 was confirmed as $4m, with deliveries to be made within 12 months of order.
The MU-B200’s $4m price tag is approximately half that of similar products on the market, which range from around $7 – $10m dollars. mu Space, through its own vertical integration methods, has managed to lower the price dramatically, while cutting the waiting time and hefty associated costs.
By producing everything in-house, the company can lower cost prices, control quality each step of the way, and customize products as the process progresses. A vertically integrated strategy isn’t solely advantageous to mu Space alone, but also their clients. It allows clients to trust that quality is being monitored closely in every process, on top of giving clients the freedom to customize the components to their specifications.
One key feature of the MU-B200 is its power system, whose efficient design has reduced cost by up to 25 percent, while achieving capacity that is 3.3 times greater than the market today, and a life cycle that is 2.75 times greater. The power system is also equipped with sensors that are able to track its power consumption and control its usage to the most efficient level possible.
mu Space Corp plans continuous grow within the space industry, evidenced through the company’s rapid expansion of production, facilities, and employees. In October of this year, mu Space unveiled plans for Factory 2, the third and largest facility to date. This expansion not only gave birth to more facilities but also allowed the company to scale their production. mu Space Corp has also continuously added to their team throughout this year and has reached 100 employees with plans to have 300 employees by the end of 2022, swiftly putting the company on the map to become a leader in the global space industry.
With worldwide launch activity having increased by 39 percent over the last decade and the value of the global satellite industry expected to be valued at $508bn by 2024 according to the Global Satellite Industry Insights & Forecast Report 2020, mu Space Corp’s expansion into the market is a signal that Southeast Asia is accelerating its participation in the satellite industry.
Speaking about the latest MU-B200 announcement, mu Space CEO and founder James Yenbamroong said, “I remember the days when we only had one desk at mu Space. Now, we have over 100 employees with plans for 300 by the end of next year. With the addition of Factory 2, our largest facility to date, our eyes are very much to the sky. The focus of the MU-B200 satellite is to provide high performance and high power to all of Southeast Asia and beyond. The higher the power, the faster the internet connection.” (Source: Satnews)
17 Dec 21. Satellite Vu Contracts SSTL To Build Their First Thermal Data Collecting Smallsat. Satellite Vu has formally signed a contract with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) to build the firm’s first satellite, which is scheduled to be launched into LEO in Q4 2022.
The satellite will collect thermal data day and night of both the natural and the built environment at any location on the planet. The full constellation will have the ability to measure the heat signature of any building multiple times a day, enabling Satellite Vu to derive new insights in real time about building heat loss, activity and insulation.
The deal comes following Satellite Vu’s £15m series A funding round, and an additional £1m grant from the UK Space Agency’s National Space Innovation Program (NSIP).
The satellite has been designed with a high resolution 3.5 meter resolution mid-wave infrared imager with video capability. The satellite video generation capability adds unique advantages over traditional imagery, allowing the detection of highly dynamic features in scenes to be provided and extracted, such as 3D profiles, movement tracking, and speed measurement useful for a range of applications relating to human activity, including defence and security and disaster monitoring.
The satellites and applications development has been supported by the UK Space Agency, via two National Space Innovation Grants, and a European Space Agency (ESA) General Support Technology Program (GSTP) grant.
Anthony Baker, CEO, Satellite Vu said, “After months of perfecting and developing the core technology, we’re excited to have formally signed this agreement with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to build the first of our seven planned satellites which will offer near real time high resolution temperature profiles of cities around the world. Satellite Vu will become the thermometer of the world. With the climate change emergency reaching critical levels, our insights will enable any business, building owner or government on the planet to obtain an independent, ongoing assessment of their energy wastage and efficiency, as well as the ability to monitor water pollution. Getting access to this data will enable organizations to take immediate action to improve their green credentials, as well as giving shareholders and investors a unique view into their company’s ESG performance.”
SSTL’s Managing Director, Phil Brownnett, said, “I am extremely pleased to be partnering with UK start up Satellite Vu. Our partnership is an ideal blend of SSTL’s pioneering approach and years of small satellite expertise with Satellite Vu’s entrepreneurial approach and strong business case. It’s a game-changing climate change mission and SSTL is very proud to be involved.”
Elizabeth Seaman, Head of National Space Innovation Programme at the UK Space Agency, said, “The National Space Innovation Programme is supporting our most ambitious innovators who are developing first-of-a-kind technologies to help solve some of our greatest challenges. This exciting partnership between SSTL and Satellite Vu will develop the first of a series of new satellites to provide real-time data on the energy efficiency of buildings, an important source of information that will help organisations respond to climate change.” (Source: Satnews)
17 Dec 21. C3S RadCube Successfully Commissioned. The commissioning phase of the C3S RadCube 3U CubeSat has been successfully completed — the platform developed by C3S has been operating since its launch on August 17, 2021, and RadCube has performed flawlessly under the extreme conditions of the space environment. After launch, the solar panels opened and the electrical power system properly charged the battery — voltage and temperature are also stable. As indicated by the continuously downlinked telemetry data, the power switches of the subsystems operate well, and the thermal conditions of the subsystems are also nominal.
Due to the communication between the On-board Computer (OBC) and the Mission Operations Center, we receive the telemetry data several times per day when the satellite passes over the ground station in Budapest. One of the commissioning phase’s milestones was the deployment of the boom that allowed the performance of scientific experiments 80 centimeters away from the satellite which, in this manner, minimizes its magnetic field.
Following the deployment, the first measurement data arrived. Even before all of this, we had started the collection of the housekeeping data of the primary scientific payload RadMag that was developed by the Centre for Energy Research. Approaching the end phase of the commissioning schedule, the activation of the instrument has been fully completed. During commissioning, the radiation unit of RadMag already recorded the effects of a space weather event. C3S is the prime member of the ESA’s RadCube consortium and, in addition to holding the project together and adding technological value, its activity encompasses the entire lifecycle of the mission from mission planning, system engineering, platform design & development, through tests and simulations to the arrangement of the launch. Furthermore, its in-house developed Mission Operation Centre and ground stations support the satellite’s operation after launch.
In addition to the Hungarian Center for Energy Research, which is responsible for the space radiation environment monitoring payload, further members of the consortium are the Imperial College of London that developed the magnetometer payload, Astronika from Poland, which is liable for the boom mechanism and ESA that provided the secondary payload to characterize space radiation effects on computer memory chips. Spanish DHV Technologies delivered the solar panels, while the Belgian KU Leuven provided the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS).
The satellite was launched from Guyana Space Centre, Kourou, French-Guyana with the coordination of Arianespace. C3S 3U cubesat’s launch partner was SAB Launch Services Srl. The launch vehicle was a VEGA (flight VV19), a European launch vehicle. ESA contracted for a half year of operation in order to complete the In-Orbit Demonstration mission objectives. However, the design lifetime of the C3S satellite platform in space exceeds this several times over.
RadCube is the sixth smallsat launched in LEO for technology on-orbit demonstration purposes within the ESA’s General Support Technology Program (GSTP). The European Space Agency has brought several projects to life in recent years with the purpose of exploiting the immense and diverse potential of smallsats. RadCube was funded from the GSTP contributions of Hungary, Poland and United Kingdom.
“The all-new cubesat platform and the precision of RadCube’s miniature instruments demanded a complex commissioning process, which has now been successfully completed,” said Dorottya Milánkovich, C3S Project Manager.
“Now we have a fully functioning spacecraft with a well-running ground segment, which is capable of operating the scientific instruments, and hence contributes to a better understanding of our space weather environment, as well as giving important flight heritage to the newly developed technologies on board,” said Roger Walker, Head of the CubeSat Systems Unit at the European Space Agency.
C3S LLC’s products and solutions support both scientific experiments and space industry demands throughout the missions. The company’s mission planning activity encompasses highly reliable nanosatellite platform and subsystem design, pre-launch simulation software and hardware development and mission operation environment development. Its redundant subsystems are highly available and have a long life-cycle. Beyond cubesats, C3S has an increasing presence in the medium satellite market as a designer of electric power distribution systems and payload management systems.
16 Dec 21. First Commercial Lunar Distance Communications Network Validated In Space. Working together, Intuitive Machines (IM) and Goonhilly Earth Station (GES) Ltd. recently integrated GES’s newly commissioned deep space antenna (GHY-6) into IM’s Lunar Telemetry and Tracking Network (LTN). The LTN will provide near-continuous coverage during the company’s IM-1 mission to the Moon in early 2022. The validation concluded with the complete system ‘live-sky’ test receiving the European Space Agency (ESA) INTEGRAL spacecraft’s signal and streaming the data back to the IM mission operations center in Houston, Texas.
“GHY-6 has been supporting ESA’s missions since the antenna was opened in the summer of 2021,” said Matt Cosby, chief technology officer for GES. “The work with IM marks the start of GES and IM offering commercial services to the Moon and testing the complete system using INTEGRAL mitigates the risk for the IM-1 mission.”
“Through GES’s GHY-6 deep space antenna, IM received data from a spacecraft nearly half the distance to the Moon,” said Troy LeBlanc Ph.D., the Vice President of Control Centers for IM. “This sends a powerful message that GES and IM together will be a major provider of near space network communications.”
Intuitive Machines’ complete Lunar Payload Delivery Services (LPDS) program unlocks the lunar economy to explore the solar system further and gain knowledge for the progress of humanity. As a premier provider of space services and technologies, Intuitive Machines is reestablishing the United States’ dominance on the ultimate high ground, the Moon. Designed by the greatest minds in spaceflight, Intuitive Machines’ LPDS program will send the first American spacecraft to the surface of the Moon since the Apollo Program and send the first spacecraft ever to reach the lunar south pole.
Goonhilly is a global communications services hub and satellite station located in Cornwall, UK. It provides a comprehensive range of leading-edge connectivity and operational solutions to the space industry, GEO, MEO and LEO satellite fleet operators, broadcasters, as well as a wide diversity of enterprises seeking to grow their businesses on Earth and in cis-lunar and deep space. Customers include SES, Intelsat, Eutelsat and Inmarsat, as well as space agencies, governments, broadcasters and others. Since 2014 the partners in Goonhilly Earth Station Ltd. have been focused on building the company and investing in the site. (Source: Satnews)
At Viasat, we’re driven to connect every warfighter, platform, and node on the battlefield. As a global communications company, we power millions of fast, resilient connections for military forces around the world – connections that have the capacity to revolutionize the mission – in the air, on the ground, and at sea. Our customers depend on us for connectivity that brings greater operational capabilities, whether we’re securing the U.S. Government’s networks, delivering satellite and wireless communications to the remote edges of the battlefield, or providing senior leaders with the ability to perform mission-critical communications while in flight. We’re a team of fearless innovators, driven to redefine what’s possible. And we’re not done – we’re just beginning.