UNITED KINGDOM AND NATO
10 Mar 22. UK maritime turbocharged with new exports office as part of £4bn shipbuilding strategy.
The International Trade Secretary today announced a new exports office to turbocharge the UK’s maritime trade sector as part of a £4bn investment in shipbuilding.
- Trade Secretary launches new Maritime Capability Campaign Office (MCCO) to unleash UK’s maritime exports potential
- MCCO will drive UK maritime trade, targeting export opportunities worth up to £600 million over next five years
- New National Shipbuilding Strategy will invest £4 billion into UK shipbuilding over next three years
The International Trade Secretary today announced a new exports office to turbocharge the UK’s maritime trade sector as part of a £4bn investment in shipbuilding.
The Maritime Capability Campaign Office (MCCO) will unite the Department’s defence export and civil maritime capabilities in one unit, targeting export opportunities estimated to be worth up to £600 million.
The MCCO will work with industry and the government’s National Shipbuilding Office to line up high-quality maritime trade opportunities for UK firms in the maritime sector looking to export worldwide.
It will form the exports and investment arm of the government’s National Shipbuilding Strategy (NSS), announced today by Defence Secretary Ben Wallace.
The NSS will seek to increase competitiveness and productivity throughout the shipbuilding industry, investing £4 billion over the next three years to create jobs and help level up across the country.
It will include a 30-year cross-government shipbuilding pipeline of more than 150 new vessels, investing over £200 million in a new UK Shipping Office for Reducing Emissions to help fund green research and innovation, and a new Shipbuilding Skills Taskforce to bring the industry together and supply maritime businesses with the qualified workers they need.
Anne-Marie Trevelyan will launch the MCCO in a keynote speech to the 2022 Maritime UK Awards in Glasgow this evening.
The International Trade Secretary, Anne-Marie Trevelyan, said: “As an island nation with a proud maritime heritage, shipbuilding is a vital part of the UK’s industrial identity, supporting over 40,000 high-quality jobs across the country. Our new Maritime Capability Campaign Office will champion exports and investments, unlocking opportunities for our world-class shipbuilding industry to export their innovative technologies, services and designs around the globe.”
Working in lockstep with business, we will build on our world-leading maritime capabilities, strengthening our global reputation as a thriving maritime industrial base and leveraging our strengths in maritime defence and low-carbon technologies.
Today the International Trade Secretary will also publish the Board of Trade’s first paper of 2022, which outlines the huge opportunities in the maritime sector for boosting exports, reaching Net Zero and creating high-paying jobs across the country.
The new paper also outlines how the UK can cement its position as a world-leading maritime nation by capitalising on its strengths in technology, innovation, maritime services and regulation.
Ben Murray, Chief Executive of Maritime UK, said:
The government’s Maritime Capability Campaign Office can enable us to unleash our full exporting potential across the globe.
And what is good for maritime is good for the UK’s coastal communities, who can become the engine room for Global Britain.
We will be working closely with government to ensure these ambitions are met, on our way to becoming the world’s most competitive maritime nation by 2050.
Before speaking at the Maritime UK Awards in Glasgow, the Trade Secretary will also visit A&P Tyneside – the largest commercial dry dock on the East Coast – marking her first visit to North East England in her current post.
At A&P the Secretary of State will witness first-hand the cutting edge of the UK’s shipbuilding and ship repair industries, and explore options to boost the company’s maritime exports, as part of the NSS aim to generate a shipbuilding renaissance across the whole UK.
Global maritime trade levels are expected to treble by 2050 and the maritime sector already supports more than 220,000 jobs across the country. (Source: https://www.gov.uk/)
11 Mar 22. Finland to Choose Between Two Israeli Companies for Air Defense Systems. Finland’s defense ministry said that the country intends to purchase air defense systems from one of two Israeli defense companies: Israel Aerospace Industries or Rafael Advanced Systems. In October 2020, the country issued a solicitation for bids to procure ground-based air defense systems to five companies, including the Israel companies, Germany’s Diehl Defence, Norway’s Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace AS, and the UK’s MBDA. It received initial tenders in November last year after the first round of negotiations. The tenders were examined on the basis of the performance of their missile systems. Based on the evaluation, the defense ministry narrowed its choices down to the two Israeli candidates. The country will make its final decision on the weapon system in early 2023.
“The procurement of high-altitude capability is part of Finland’s overall air defence capacity and a broader project to develop it,” the country said in a statement. “With the project, Finland intends to improve its high-altitude air defence capability and significantly increase the range of its ground-based air defence.”
Under the anti-aircraft project, Finland plans to procure equipment including missile launchers, missiles, radar systems, and related integration equipment.
Finland is likely to purchase either Israel Aerospace Industries’ Barak MX or Rafael’s David’s Sling. The David’s Sling is capable of defeating short-range ballistic missiles, highly accurate missiles, large-caliber rockets, and armed UAVs. The weapon, jointly developed with US-based Raytheon, can intercept missiles and UAVs at a distance between 40 and 300 kilometers (25 to 186 miles) away. The Barak-MX can be deployed from both land-based and naval platforms and has been developed to attack aircraft and missile threats. Finland’s decision to boost its defense capabilities is a direct response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Last week, Russia threatened Finland with “serious military consequences” if the European country joins NATO. Finland shares a long border with Russia. (Source: Google/https://www.thedefensepost.com/)
09 Mar 22. Russian invasion of Ukraine is reviving Euro-Turkish fighter efforts. War between Turkey’s two Black Sea partners has given an unexpected jolt to the country’s quest for new fighter jets and its domestic program to make new-generation aircraft.
“The war has practically killed all potential Turkish-Russian deals in strategic weapons systems,” said a senior Turkish diplomat, who deals with NATO and security affairs and was not authorized to speak to the press. “This will be a de facto part of our proactive neutrality.”
Since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Turkey has maintained a delicate balance — not giving up on Russia or on Ukraine, as officials have said.
Russia is Turkey’s biggest energy supplier. Russia and Ukraine together are Turkey’s biggest tourist markets and grain suppliers. Turkey faced suspension from the U.S.-led multinational program that builds the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, as it insisted on becoming the first NATO ally to deploy on its soil the Russian-made S-400 air defense system. Meanwhile, Turkey supplies armed drones to Ukraine.
The U.S. suspension of Turkey’s partnership in the F-35 program has left the country with limited options, given its fleet of F-16s will be phased out in the early 2030s. A Turkish request to acquire a new fleet of F-16 Block 70 aircraft will likely face opposition from U.S. lawmakers. In the past, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan indicated his government’s interest in Russian aircraft in place of the F-35.
One stopgap option for Turkey is to buy scores of the Eurofighter Typhoon and, in return, bargain for European know-how for its own fighter program, the TF-X.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a multinational, twin-engine, multirole fighter. It was originally designed as an air superiority fighter and is manufactured by a consortium of Airbus, BAE Systems and Leonardo. That group conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH. The NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency, representing the U.K., Germany, Italy and Spain, manages the project and is the prime customer.
One Turkish procurement official, was not authorized to speak to the press, agreed that the Typhoon could be an option, potentially involving the purchase of about 80 aircraft. “These aircraft can even be assembled in Turkey, though they would then come with a bigger price tag,” he said.
Top British manufacturers like BAE Systems and Rolls-Royce are no strangers to the TF-X program.
In October 2016, engine-maker Rolls-Royce offered a joint production partnership to Turkey with a view to powering planned Turkish platforms and potential sales to third parties. The British company’s proposal involved a production unit in Turkey to manufacture engines for the TF-X, as well as for helicopters, tanks and missiles.
In January 2017, BAE and Turkish Aerospace Industries signed a deal worth more than £100m (U.S. $131m) to develop the Turkish fighter jet.
“We work with Turkish Aerospace to bring know-how and engineering expertise to the TF-X program,” BAE said in a tweet on Feb. 15.
In a March 5 television interview, Ismail Demir, Turkey’s top defense procurement official, said that the government would now negotiate a possible engine deal with Rolls-Royce.
“We had some issues [with Rolls-Royce] before,” he said. “These have been resolved. I think we are ready to work together.
“We expect that further talks with British government and industry officials this year will raise the chances for a final deal.”
A Rolls-Royce spokesman in London said the company is “not in a position to comment at this stage.”
A British Ministry of Defence spokesperson told Defense News in an email: “The U.K. and Turkey are close NATO allies with a strong defense relationship. We are working with Turkey to help them develop a ‘fifth-generation’ fighter aircraft (TF-X) and firmly support industry partners engaging with Turkey on this program.”
Some analysts say a Russian fighter option for Turkey was only a political bargaining chip all along.
“That bargaining phase with the West has largely disappeared after the war,” said Özgür Ekşi, a defense and security analyst in Ankara. “Security needs and politics dictate Ankara to remain within the NATO scope in its fighter jet inventory. The only viable options before Turkey flies the TF-X are the Typhoon, Saab and F-16 Block 70.”
Sweden’s Saab manufactures the Gripen fighter; the F-16 jets are made by Lockheed Martin. (Source: Defense News)
10 Mar 22. Starburst Aerospace Opens Applications for SCALE Accelerator Spring Cohort. Starburst, the world’s first and only global aerospace accelerator and advisory firm, today announced that applications are open to join its SCALE Accelerator’s Spring Cohort. SCALE, a joint collaboration between Starburst and UCLA funded by a 2020 Venture Challenge grant of $1.4m from the US Economic Development Administration, is an accelerator designed to inspire pre-seed and seed stage startups, entrepreneurs and investors to pursue the advancement of novel technologies with aerospace applications. As of March 1, 2022 applications for SCALE’s spring cohort are open and the deadline to apply is March 31, 2022. The program will run from May 2 – July 28, 2022 and includes lectures, workshops, special events, and mentorship, all working together to help startups mature technology, raise capital, and push products into the market. The accelerator will build on the region’s existing aerospace ecosystem, connecting and aligning entrepreneurs, investors, corporates, academia, and governments.
“After an extremely successful and inspiring summer SCALE program, we are thrilled to open applications for the spring cohort,” said Van Espahbodi, Co-Founder and Managing Partner of Starburst. “SCALE expands our ability to support aerospace startups at all stages of growth, from ideation through investment, as well as build the next generation of aerospace startups in the Los Angeles area. We look forward to keeping the momentum going.”
Starburst is currently operating eight accelerators globally with more in development, playing a key role in technological advancement and commercialization across the industry. Its global influence as a pioneer throughout the aviation and aerospace industry and long track record accelerating high-tech startups, from pre-seed through Series A and beyond, will ensure the effective development of these technological advancements into successful commercial ventures.
Interested entrepreneurs, investors, and mentors are encouraged to visit the website at https://starburst.aero/scale-accelerator/ to learn more.
Starburst is an innovation catalyst in the aerospace industry. They are the first and only global aerospace accelerator, connecting startups with corporates, investors and government, while providing strategic growth and investment consulting services for all. With offices in Los Angeles, Paris, Munich, Singapore, Seoul, Tel Aviv, Mumbai, and Madrid, the team has built an ecosystem of key players with 9000+ of startups in its network. Starburst’s accelerator program helps startups scale their business in aviation, space, and defense with access to the largest group of corporate stakeholders to help startups win their first $1M+ contract. (Source: PR Newswire)
07 Mar 22. US Army seeks industry proposals to boost counter-UAS capabilities of NATO Baltic States. The United States Army – Army Contracting Command (ACC), Redstone Arsenal – has issued a Request for Information (RFI) from industry as part of a market research programme to identify parties having an interest in and the resources to support a programme to increase air defence and counter-UAS capabilities among NATO Baltic states.
According to the RFI: the Government seeks white papers regarding the capabilities, past similar experience and technical approach to this effort and industry’s assessment/ opinion of the most efficient and cost effective method of providing Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control (FAAD C2) and Air and Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS) to integrate Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) architecture for Air Defense and Counter-Unmanned Aerial Systems (C-UAS) in support of their homeland defence.
“This effort will provide FAAD and AMDWS suites of equipment, FAAD handheld computers, Counter-Rocket, Artillery, Mortar (C-RAM) Network (C-NET) Interface Kits, Digital Training Sets, Software Development, Publications, and Training and all associated support. “
“The interested party shall be able to obtain and maintain personnel and facilities at the SECRET clearance level. The interested party shall be capable of complying with the Safeguarding Covered Defense Information and Cyber Incident Reporting clause at DFARS 252.204-7012 and shall have a Cybersecurity program that follows the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Framework for Improving Critical compliance assessments performed by the Government.”
Responsible organisation: US Department for the Army
Deadline: March 18, 2022
Tender number: PANRSA-22-P-0000-004772
For more information: https://sam.gov/opp/6b2bfb1ba90c426ebbe2306007f9ebd3/view
REST OF THE WORLD
10 Mar 22. QinetiQ Australia joins Lockheed Martin Australia’s AIR 6500 bid. QinetiQ Australia has joined the Lockheed Martin Australia-led bid for the AIR 6500 program, agreeing to provide test and evaluation, verification and validation, certification and assurance services to support the development of a Joint Air Battle Management System solution. As part of the agreement, the companies will work together to develop test and evaluation and governance frameworks to reduce risk ahead of AIR 6500-1. Valued at an estimated $2.7bn, the Joint Air Battle Management System (JABMS) is intended to bolster situational awareness of air and missile threats via defence’s future Integrated Air and Missile Defence (IAMD) system. The final decision on the program is expected to be announced in 2023.
“Lockheed Martin Australia is delighted to team with QietiQ Australia,” SteveFroelich, AIR 6500 program executive at Lockheed Martin Australia, said.
“The teaming agreement marks an important focus on designing a highly robust, independently validated, agile AIR 6500-1 program solution that supports the Royal Australian Air Force’s vision to transform the Air Force into a next-gen-enabled force.
“Lockheed Martin Australia’s proven expertise in building, integrating and sustaining advanced technology systems across complex joint all-domain platforms combined with QinetiQ Australia’s unrivalled expertise in integrated air and missile defence test, evaluation, certification and systems assurance, means we are the trusted partner of choice to deliver an unmatched integrated air battle management capability edge to Australia.”
Greg Barsby, managing director at QinetiQ Australia, explained that the local workforce will leverage QinetiQ’s pedigree in test and evaluation to develop sovereign solutions for the AIR 6500 project.
“Our highly experienced local team of T&E professionals have been able to leverage QinetiQ’s global expertise in complex test and evaluation, to deliver world-leading solutions while growing sovereign T&E capabilities in Australia. We look forward to collaborating on an innovative test and evaluation solution that leverages the digital age we are now immersed in,” Barsby said.
“Lockheed Martin Australia has a distinguished history of delivering to the Australian Defence customer and collaborating with defence industry. I am delighted QinetiQ is teamed with Lockheed Martin as the sovereign Test and Evaluation service provider and look forward to delivering a state-of-the-art solution to the AIR 6500 program.”
The recent down selection of Lockheed Martin Australia and Northrop Grumman Australia for the JABMS program followed extensive stakeholder engagement via defence’s tender process, which involved an assessment of the respective integrated air and missile defence offerings proposed by the contenders. The two shortlisted primes edged ahead of Boeing Defence Australia and Raytheon Australia, who also nominated for the first phase of the competitive evaluation process. Minister for Defence Peter Dutton explained that the JABMS will connect the ADF’s warfighting domains, enhancing their joint defensive capabilities.
“Through the competitive evaluation process, Australian industry has demonstrated its versatility and adaptability to provide innovative proposals in the challenging field of integrated air and missile defence,” Minister Dutton said. (Source: Defence Connect)
07 Mar 22. Republic of Korea Army to Buy New Helicopters to Replace Its Boeing CH-47D Chinook Fleet. At the virtual committee session, South Korea’s Defense Project Promotion Committee also approved a plan to purchase large military choppers from foreign companies under a project to replace aging CH-47D helicopters currently operated by the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA). The project is to last from 2022-28 with a budget estimated at 1.4trn won, the South Korea’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) said. These new and upgraded helicopters are expected to be put into service with the Army Aviation Operations Command by 2026~2027. DAPA is expected to hold a meeting soon to decide whether to buy new heavy-lift helicopters rather than upgrade the existing fleet. But industry sources expect buying new helos would take more time and end up costing more, depending on the variant. To get Block I CH-47F Chinook cargo helicopters, which have been on the shopping list of the South Korean Army. If it doesn’t buy Block I, South Korea has an option to get Block II, which is to be produced for the U.S. Army first, and then it could take more time and costs to get the up-to-date, heavy-lift helicopters. The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engined, tandem rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol. The CH-47 is among the heaviest lifting of Western helicopters. Its name, Chinook, is from the Native American Chinook people of Washington state. In air assault operations, it often serves as the principal mover of the 155 mm M198 howitzer, accompanying 30 rounds of ammunition, and an 11-man crew. The CH-47D shares the same airframe as earlier models, the main difference being the adoption of more powerful engines. Early CH-47Ds were originally powered by two T55-L-712 engines, the most common engine is the later T55-GA-714A. With its triple-hook cargo system, the CH-47D can carry heavy payloads internally and up to 26,000 lb (12,000 kg) (such as 40-foot or 12-metre containers) externally. It was first introduced into service in 1979. The CH-47D also has advanced avionics, such as the Global Positioning System. Nearly all US Army CH-47D were conversions from previous A, B, and C models, a total of 472 being converted. The last U.S. Army CH-47D built was delivered to the U.S. Army Reserve, located at Fort Hood, Texas, in 2002. (Source: https://militaryleak.com/)
07 Mar 22. SA taskforce established for nuclear-powered submarine program. The South Australian state government has announced the establishment of a dedicated taskforce for the RAN’s Nuclear-Powered Submarine Program. The South Australia Government Submarine Taskforce will support Defence’s own Nuclear-Powered Submarine Taskforce to deliver an optimal pathway for the submarine program, keeping local industry capability at the forefront. The new taskforce, chaired by Defence SA, will work closely with state government agencies, local industry and local government representatives to discuss key focus areas including safety, environmental protection, facilities and infrastructure, industrial base capacity and workforce. A process will also be undertaken to engage members across the public and private sectors with expertise in a range of necessary fields. This news follows the September 2021 announcement of the intent to construct at least eight new nuclear-powered submarines at the Osborne Naval Shipyard, as part of the enhanced AUKUS security partnership between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. (Source: Rumour Control)
07 Mar 22. SYPAQ Submits Sovereign Solution for Land 129 Phase 4B4. SYPAQ Systems has submitted its CorvoX Unmanned Aerial System (system as a sovereign Australian solution for Land 129 Phase 4B, which will deliver a man-portable small UAS for Army. CorvoX will provide Army commanders with the intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support needed to maintain ‘over the hill, down the road and around the corner’ situational awareness, says the company. CorvoX was designed, developed and demonstrated specifically to meet the unique requirements of Land 129 Phase 4B. It combines vertical take-off, hover and landing capabilities with fixed wing flight mode – all designed to reduce the physical and cognitive load on the operator.
SYPAQ CEO Amanda Holt highlighted the unique capabilities CorvoX would offer Army end-users, as well as its 90% Australian Industry Content.
“CorvoX will provide crucial operational advantages that will contribute to the enhanced safety and effectiveness of Army personnel, including rapid set-up and almost instant loitering and surveillance capability.”
SYPAQ’s General Manager Innovation and Strategic Programs, Michael Partridge, said the company’s bid was the culmination of an extensive collaborative process with local technology partners and Defence engagement to ensure CorvoX offers the best of Australian Industry Capability whilst aligning to Defence’s specific need.
“CorvoX is the result of a four-year innovation journey responding to the requirements identified by Army and the Defence Innovation Hub Special Notice,” he said. “The system is proof of the world-leading autonomous systems capabilities in Australian industry, which we have seen right across our local supply chain.”
In addition to close collaboration with Defence, SYPAQ’s bid has been strengthened by the Victorian government’s support in developing the Defence Autonomy Centre of Excellence (DACE), located next to Melbourne’s Fisherman’s Bend innovation precinct.
Ms Holt said the DACE represents a significant investment in SYPAQ’s R&D and manufacturing capabilities, allowing the company to “continue developing our innovative technologies and intellectual property related to autonomous systems, sensor systems, military systems integration, artificial intelligence and cyber security.” (Source: Rumour Control)
04 Mar 22. R5bn in defence exports to the Middle East are unlocked. The National Conventional Arms Control Committee (NCACC) has approved multiple defence transactions with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), unlocking billions of rands worth of defence exports from South Africa. This was revealed by Dr Moses Khanyile, National Defence Industry Council (NDIC) Coordinator, who was briefing the Joint Standing Committee on Defence on 3 March on plans to boost the South African defence industry. He noted that there have been issues with some countries in the Middle East that saw defence exports halted, but “this matter has been resolved following the decision by the National Conventional Arms Control Committee to approve normal transactions with these countries.” The countries include the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Oman. Over R5.5bn worth of transactions have been immediately unlocked thanks to the NCACC decision to allow exports, while R21bn is still to be unlocked. Unfortunately, R2bn in opportunities have been lost because of the impasse and delays emanating from the concerns Saudi Arabia and the UAE had. In 2019 it emerged that the NCACC was insisting that it be allowed to inspect customer countries’ facilities to verify compliance and that they must sign end user certificates (EUCs) in which they pledge not to sell their weapons on to third parties. This caused a halt in export approvals to South Africa’s biggest military clients: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, with experts warning the stricter regulations could destroy the South African defence industry.
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which account for at least a third of South Africa’s arms exports, rejected the inspections which they considered a violation of their sovereignty, whilst Oman and Algeria also refused inspections, and saw imports blocked.
Khanyile noted that the R5bn in exports that has been unlocked pales in comparison to other exports to the Middle East – the United States, United Kingdom, France and Germany exported R135bn worth of equipment to Saudi Arabia and the UAE between 2016 and 2020.
Khanyile said that even though South African exports have been allowed to resume, the prolonged delays have had a negative impact, leading to some companies being threatened with blacklisting; the cancellation or stalling on negotiations for future contracts; and loss of market share to competitors.
“It has definitely jeopardised the standing of the country and the industry in those countries and therefore it is important that something be done, that a comprehensive strategy be developed to undo the damage and re-engage all these countries in these regions,” Khanyile said.
“There is still an issue to deal with in Oman. Negotiations around new end user certificates were accepted by other countries like Saudi Arabia and the UAE but Oman still wants further clarity on the implications of the EUC.”
Khanyile emphasised that the NCACC is a clear enabler of business for the defence industry and is crucial in terms of getting approvals and speedily processing of permits. “The industry feels in considering permits it is important for the NCACC to ensure the primacy of national economic interests.”
He told the Committee that as there has been a steep decline in terms of local defence consumption, the industry has been forced to rely on exports. “Over three quarters of production is destined for the external market. The industry is urging government to play an active role in marketing the local defence industry, just as other major powers do when they engage their diplomatic counterparts. When other major countries have bilaterals, multilaterals, they normally include defence industry players because industry relies on other governments as clients.”
Khanyile said that each time the South African government engages other countries it is an opportunity to market the defence industry. “It is important delegations include defence industry players. Special attention should be paid to countries in Africa and the Middle East because that’s a growing market for the industry.” (Source: https://www.defenceweb.co.za/)
04 Mar 22. Indian MoD grants AIP for indigenous development of nine defence projects. Four of these projects will be provided government funding for prototype development purposes. The Indian Ministry of Defence’s (MoD) Collegiate Committee has granted Approval In-Principle (AIP) for the indigenous development of nine defence projects. This implies that the Indian defence industry will be involved in the design and prototype development of the required military equipment or system or platform. The projects intended for the Indian Air Force are communication equipment with Indian security protocols, airborne electro-optical pod featuring the ground-based system, airborne stand-off jammer, a full-motion simulator for Apache and Chinook Helicopters, and wearable robotic equipment for aircraft maintenance. The remaining projects are for the Indian Army and include an Indian light tank, an integrated surveillance and targeting system for mechanised forces, and an autonomous combat vehicle. This represents that the Indian industry will participate in the development of some major platforms for the first time since the launch of DAP-2020. Four of the nine projects fall under the Make-I category of Defence Acquisition Procedure (DAP) 2020. Make-I category will receive 90% funding from the Indian Government for prototype development purposes. Furthermore, five projects fall under the industry-funded Make-II category. The government will not provide financial aid for prototype development purposes for the project under this category. In a statement, the MoD said: “The indigenous development of these projects in the country will help harness the design capabilities of Indian defence Industry and position India as a design leader in these technologies.” (Source: airforce-technology.com)